tagline: From openSUSE
- 1 Before you download
- 2 Choose which openSUSE distribution
- 3 Choose the installation type
- 4 Choose the download protocol
- 5 Checksums
- 6 Repairing a download
- 7 Burn the ISO image(s) to DVD
- 8 Troubleshooting downloads
- 9 See also
Before you download
Before downloading your version of openSUSE there are a few things you should consider.
Recommended system requirements
Make sure you meet the system requirements. openSUSE supports most PC hardware components. The following requirements should be met to ensure smooth operation of openSUSE:
- 2 Ghz dual core processor or better
- 2 GB system memory
- Over 40GB of free hard drive space
- Either a DVD drive or USB port for the installation media
- Internet access is helpful, and required for the Network Installer
Disk space and process time
Downloading large ISO files can sometimes cause issues; here is some advice to make it easier.
- Most openSUSE ISO downloads are DVD-sized and will not fit on a 700 MB CD.
- When delivered as a single DVD ISO, openSUSE requires one download of 4.3 GB (see footnote 1)
Bittorrent is the preferred way to download files, as it is more reliable and reduces loads on openSUSE servers. If using bittorrent is not available, the use of a download manager is recommended.
The following table shows estimates of how long the download process takes at various connection speeds:
|1 CD ISO (700 MB)||1 DVD ISO (4.7 GB)|
|56 KBit||28 hours||187 hours|
|64 KBit (ISDN)||25 hours||164 hours|
|1024 KBit (Broadband)||1.5 hours||11 hours|
|2048 KBit (Broadband)||45 minutes||5.5 hours|
|8192 KBit (Broadband)||12 minutes||1.5 hours|
|24 MBit (ADSL2)||4 minutes||28 minutes|
|100 MBit (Fibre)||1 minute||7 minutes|
Choose which openSUSE distribution
The openSUSE project delivers two different versions of openSUSE that you can download, install and redistribute.
- Leap - a regular release version of Linux. This means it releases annually, with security and stability updates being the priority during each release lifetime. It is not expected to change in any significant way until its next annual release. Leap shares a Common Base System with SUSE Linux Enterprise, so major architectural changes are not expected for several years, aligned with each new Major Release (eg 12, 13, etc) of SUSE Linux Enterprise. Leap is recommended for Sysadmins, Enterprise Developers, and "Regular" Desktop Users.
- Tumbleweed - a rolling release version of Linux. This means the software is always the latest stable versions available from the openSUSE Project. Things will change regularly as Free and Open Source projects continually release new versions of their software. Tumbleweed is recommended for Developers, openSUSE Contributors, and Linux/FOSS Enthusiasts.
Choose the installation type
When you choose this installation type, you download CD/DVD images that hold the openSUSE installation sources to your local computer and proceed from there. This has several advantages.
- You don't depend on an Internet connection during the installation
- You can share the data on different computers
- You can reuse the data at any time later
But it has its downsides as well.
- You transfer a lot of data that you don't actually need
- Due to size limitations of CDs/DVDs, you get only a subset of all packaged software for openSUSE.
Workflow for the local installation
- Download ISO images.
- Burn ISO images to blank CD/DVD
- Boot your system with the CD/DVD
- Install openSUSE
If you choose this installation type, you download a small boot medium to start the installation from and the YaST installer does the rest for you. This method also has several advantages.
- You do not download everything, but just the data you need
- You need only one blank CD
- The Internet installation source contains all packaged software for openSUSE
Of course, it also has its downsides.
- You depend on an Internet connection during the installation
- It may be very slow depending upon the load of the server and your internet connection speed
- It may not be possible to connect to the Internet if your network card is not recognized
Workflow for the network installation
- Download the boot CD image. The latest NET CDs are in the Factory repository, but before you use it read the article about Factory.
- Burn the boot CD image.
- Boot your computer from the boot CD.
- Point the YaST installer to the installation repository (by pressing F3 and then F4)
- Install openSUSE.
Learn more about Network installation.
Choose the download protocol
Downloading via HTTP
You could download the openSUSE disk images like you would download a normal file, and just click on the link on the Download page in your web browser. However it's strongly recommended that you use a proper download manager to reduce the risk of corrupted data when doing such a large download.
- If you use Linux to download, we recommend that you use the commandline tool wget. wget is able to continue the download later after an interruption by adding -c to the wget parameters. A reconnection after a temporary disconnection happens automatically, even without -c. For more information about wget read man wget.
- If you use an older Linux or Unix to download, we recommend that you use the commandline tool curl, like this: curl -C - -O URL. For more information read man curl.
- If you use Mac OS or Windows, use your favorite download tool meeting the above requirements.
Downloading via BitTorrent
BitTorrent is an open source peer-to-peer file sharing protocol , designed for sharing large software and media files. Its advantage over plain HTTP is that the clients protect against data corruption, and when multiple downloads of the same file happen concurrently, the downloaders upload to each other, making it possible for the file source to support very large numbers of downloaders with only a modest increase in its load. If enough people participate it will also be faster than the centralized servers - for everybody.
The workflow is simple : once you have downloaded and installed a client, you can start a BitTorrent download by clicking a *.torrent download link in your browser.
- If you use openSUSE, we recommend that you use the generic BitTorrent client or the KTorrent client. An alternative light-weight command line client is aria2 (Build Service packages here)
- If you use Windows, three popular options are to use Vuze (be sure you have the Java JRE installed on your computer), the light-weight µTorrent or the original BitTorrent client.
Other BitTorrent clients programs are available for several platforms. You can find links to some BitTorrent clients on the official BitTorrent Web page. For the exact download procedure, look at the documentation for the client you use.
Metalinks are an XML format, used by download managers, that contain the mirror and P2P locations of a file along with checksums. Metalink clients offer download resuming, downloading from multiple sources (both mirrors and P2P) simultaneously, automatic checksum verification, and automatic error repair (depending on client used), among other features. Hence using metalinks can deliver higher availability and reliability, self healing downloads, and very fast transfer speeds.
- DownThemAll!, a Firefox plugin, is one of the easiest way to use Metalinks.
- aria2 is the recommended Unix command line client (packages here).
- wxDownload Fast is available for all platforms and has a GUI (packages here).
- Speed Download is available for Mac OS.
- Orbit Downloader and GetRight are available on Windows. There are other clients available for Mac OS, Windows, and Unix.
The metalinks are served by the openSUSE download redirector. You can find metalinks for all ISO images below the address http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/openSUSE-current/iso/.
For usage and more information, see Metalinks.
Downloading via FTP
It's recommended you download openSUSE from the Download page. This is primarily for advanced users.
First choose a mirror site near your location. Make sure the mirror site hosts the version of the product you want for the type of media you prefer.
If you find an ISO location like ftp://ftp.example.org/pub/opensuse/distribution/<release>/iso/<some>.iso, you can get this image either by using your browser, or with the commands
cd <TARGET DIRECTORY> wget ftp://ftp.example.org/pub/opensuse/distribution/<release>/iso/<some>.iso
After an interruption, you can continue the download by adding -c to the wget parameters:
wget -c ftp://ftp.example.org/pub/opensuse/distribution/<release>/iso/<some>.iso
When the download is finished, you will find a file named <some>.iso in the directory <TARGET DIRECTORY>.
Before you burn your CD/DVD images, you should check the files for errors. A file named <some>.iso.sha256 is available. This file contains hashes for the corresponding ISO image that is available from that download location. The relevant line of the checksum would look like the following:
These *.iso.sha256 files are also GPG signed by openSUSE (as an additional safeguard - you may see a warning when the SHA256 checksum is computed, read on for a solution).
To be sure that the download did not contain any errors, you should create this number using the SHA256 algorithm for your own ISO image and compare with the value found in the corresponding <some>.iso.sha256 file. Your CD/DVD image burning software may have this feature built-in, in which case check you are using the newer SHA256 algorithm (instead of perhaps older the MD5).
To verify the checksum automatically at a command prompt, type:
sha256sum -c <some>.iso.sha256
If the checksum matches then amongst the output you will see a line like:
If there is any difference between the output of the checksum command and the above number, the download is broken and should be repeated or repaired.
sha256sum will almost certainly warn that some of the lines are improperly formatted, because it is doesn't understand/process the GPG signature which is also found in the checksum file.
To verify the GPG signature at the command prompt you first need to import the Project's signing key with the following commands:
gpg --recv-keys 0x22C07BA534178CD02EFE22AAB88B2FD43DBDC284
gpg --fingerprint "openSUSE Project Signing Key <firstname.lastname@example.org>"
Now you can verify the signature with
gpg --verify <some>.iso.sha256
You will get output showing when the file was signed and confirming the fingerprint, like:
gpg: Signature made Fri 21 Jul 2017 11:10:22 BST using RSA key ID 3DBDC284 gpg: Good signature from "openSUSE Project Signing Key <email@example.com>" gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: 22C0 7BA5 3417 8CD0 2EFE 22AA B88B 2FD4 3DBD C284
The Primary key fingerprint should be
22C0 7BA5 3417 8CD0 2EFE 22AA B88B 2FD4 3DBD C284
Please refer to the GPG documentation about the trusted signature warning message, it does not indicate a problem but only the fact that you have not signed the key yourself.
Again, if the output differs (words like BAD, CRC error or no signature found are a sure sign of problems) then you should check the integrity of your downloaded files and their origin.
Repairing a download
If you are using Linux as operating system, you may repair broken ISO downloads with the command rsync. To do that, choose a mirror that supports this protocol from the mirror list and enter the following:
This will show the content of the directory on the server. By appending the names of the subdirectories to the command, you can get to the directory where the ISO is located on the remote computer. Then
touch <path-to-your-local-ISO-file> rsync -avP rsync://<name-of-mirror>/<path-to-remote-ISO-file> <path-to-your-local-ISO-file>
will repair the file, only downloading the needed data to correct it. For further information please refer to the manpage of rsync, by entering (in a shell):
Burn the ISO image(s) to DVD
After successfully downloading the ISO image(s), use the burning application of your choice to burn the ISO file(s) to a blank CD or a blank DVD (Note that from 12.3 on, the ISO won't fit onto a CD anymore, use a USB-stick instead). On systems running openSUSE, use the K3B or Brasero program to burn the discs. Select the option that allows burning a CD or DVD image and/or a ISO9660 file system. Do not burn the ISO image(s) the same way as you would burn files.
From the command line you can use the program cdrecord.
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrecorder speed=44 driveropts=burnproof -dao -eject -v isofile
Using Microsoft Windows
- Use ImgBurn.
- Right-click on the ISO image and choose 'Burn disc image'.
- Select a disc burner (drive) and choose 'Burn'. If you check 'Verify disc after burning', it will confirm that the ISO image has been burned correctly.
Windows 95/98/ME/2000/XP/Server 2003/Vista
Windows XP can't burn ISO images without third party software. The unauthorized ISO Recorder PowerToy can add this capability to Windows XP. For users coming from any version of Microsoft Windows, there exists a number of third party CD-burner applications capable of burning ISO images, usually a burning program for Microdoft Windows is provided with the drive - use your favourite search engine to find them. A good open source software is InfraRecorder, a good freeware software is Cd Burner XP. Be sure when you burn your iso image that you burn it using "disc-at-once" or "session-at-once", and not "track-at-once". Some software (Nero) defaults to "track-at-once".
Using MacOS X (10.3 and above)
In the Finder, open the Go menu and select Utilities. In the Utilities folder you will find an application called Disk Utility. Open it, then drag and drop the downloaded ISO image in to the left hand sidebar. Select the image, click Burn and insert your CD/DVD. For more information check Apple's support page on the subject.
Make a bootable Live USB stick
Refer to this how-to if using Linux, MacOS, or Windows: SDB:Live USB stick
Downloading large files such as ISO images is sometimes difficult. Here are some tips for avoiding the most common issues:
- 'Not-enough-space' error may occur if the DVD ISO is being downloaded to a FAT32 file system, despite the fact that your drive may say you have enough space. The FAT32 file system has a file size limit of 4 GiB minus 1 byte (or 4,294,967,295 bytes), and therefore the DVD ISO (4.3GB) will not fit. To resolve this, download the CD ISOs or download to another drive.
- Consider using Metalinks or BitTorrent instead of FTP: sometimes they achieve better performance rates than FTP downloads, and they can ensure that the data was correctly transferred.
- Consider using a download manager or an FTP client that supports resume: we strongly suggest this kind of softwares because if download problems occur, the resume function allows you to continue a download made earlier rather than having to start over again. Many download managers also now support checksum verification, which is recommended. Choose a download manager with the features you need from this comprehensive list.
- Proxy disallowing FTP ? : some proxies are configured not to allow FTP access. If you are using a proxy, download from an HTTP mirror site instead.
- Proxy has a download size limitation ? : when downloading the DVD ISO, make sure that your proxy and your download client support files 4.3GB or larger. If the download stops prematurely close to that size, your client most probably does not support large files. If you are using Linux, you can use Konqueror (KDE browser), curl, or lftp (lukemftp). On MacOS, Safari and the default ftp-client should work. If you are using Windows, FileZilla is worth a try.