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Steps of a Research Process
- Definition and clarification of the problem;
- Objectives and definition of the information needed;
- Identify the information sources;
- Identify the instruments and methods to collect data;
- Define the type of sample and sample design;
- Establish the time frame and costs involved;
- Data retrieval process;
- Data mining and data processing;
- Analysis of the data;
- Report and presentation of the results
Research Process: The Process
Defining the Problem
- One of the most important steps in any research;
- Only after identifying the problem is possible to design a research that produces relevant data;
- The definition of the problem includes the definition of the research goals;
- Any project requires well defined goals; it's not worth to advance on the process if the goals are not well defined.
What can go wrong
- Unusefull Solutions - based on badly defined problems, the result of the research will be at the best, ambiguous, it's contribution to the final decision will be minimal.
- Incorrect Research Design - without a clear defined problem, the research design will be the product of a set of factors that are not related with the resolution of the problem.
- Incorrect Samples - Focusing the research on the wrong target, the researcher walks away from the real problem.
- Unusefull Data (or even dangerous) - at the best of chances, might lead to the discussion of interesting subjects, at the worst might lead to wrong decisions.
Design methods and questionnaires to collect data
- Always when primary data is required:
- Data should be retrieved by questionnaires or by observation?
- Questionnaires designed with open or closed questions?
- The objectives of the research should or not be disclosed?
- Test the questionnaire.
Definition of sample and data retrieval
- Define the poll base;
- Define the process for the sample selection;
- Define the dimension of the sample;
- Field work, we need researchers!
- Selection, training e control of the field researchers.
Analysis and Data Interpretation
- It's required that the data is analysed considering the problem that leaded to this research;
- Edition, verify if the questionnaires are complete and are consistent;
- Coding, to every question there is a numeric code. Can be a long task if the questionnaire has too many open questions.
- Tabbing, build the data in tables.
Reports and Recommendations
- The report of the research will be submitted to the management reporting the results and conclusions of the research;
- It's the most important document to evaluate the executed project;
- It must be objective and insightful.
Desk Research aims for retrieval, sistemization, processing and analysis of a set of informations (quantitative or qualitative) which might lead to identify solution to the marketing problem previously identified.
Necessary Data Attributes
- Accounting Data;
- Sales Reports;
- Several Reports;
- Organization Experts.
- Specialized Press;
- Bibliographic Data Bases;
- Numeric Data Bases;
- Sectorial Associations;
- Governmental Organisms (demographics, wealth, employment, inflation, etc);
- Market Research and Consulting Organizations;
- International Organizations;
- Another Experts