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openSUSE:Cheat sheet 13.1

tagline: From openSUSE

openSUSE Cheat Sheet

YaST Administration Tool

Run YaST using Qt GUI

# yast –-qt

Run YaST using Gtk GUI

# yast --gtk

Run YaST in text-mode

# yast --ncurses

List available YaST modules

# yast -l

Use modules

# yast <modulename>

ZYpp Package Management

List repositories

# zypper lr

Add repository

# zypper ar -f <URL> <alias>

Refresh repositories

# zypper ref

Update installed packages

# zypper up

Perform a distribution upgrade

# zypper dup

Package information

# zypper if <package name>

Package search

# zypper se <package, pattern or dependancy name>

Which package owns a file

# zypper se --provides <file path>

List files in package

$ rpm -ql <package name>

Network

View network interfaces

$ ip a
$ iwconfig

Show routes

$ ip ru; ip route show table all

Show open TCP/UDP ports

# ss -anptu

Show all open ports

# ss -anp

Test host availability

$ ping hostname

Change host name

# hostnamectl set-hostname machine.network.name

Services

List all services

# systemctl list-units --type service

Service status

# systemctl status <service name>

Start/Stop/Restart service

# systemctl start <service name>
# systemctl stop <service name>
# systemctl restart <service name>

Show overriden config files

# systemd-delta

Anaylze boot times

# systemd-analyze blame
# systemd-analyze plot >filename.svg

Show the journal information

# journalctl -u <service name>
# journalctl -f (follow the output of the journal, similar to 'old' tail -f /var/log/messages)
# journalctl -b (only show messages since last boot)

Manage Time and Date

# timedatectl

CPU & Memory information

View CPU details

$ lscpu
$ less /proc/cpuinfo
$ uname -a

Show running processes

$ ps -ef
$ pstree
$ top -c

Show memory use

$ less /proc/meminfo
$ free

Enable/disable swap

$ swapon -a
$ swapoff -a

Show all open files & directories

# lsof | less
# lsof | grep -i filename

File Systems

List disks & partitions

# fdisk -l
# fdisk -l /dev/<h/s>d<a/z>

List mounted file systems

$ lsblk
$ findmnt
$ less /proc/self/mountinfo

Mount a partition

# mount -t <type> <device> <mount point>

Mount a CD/DVD iso image

# mount -t iso9660 -o loop dvd-image.iso <mount point>

Unmount file systems

# umount /dev/<device>
# umount /<mount point>

Inode and disk space usage combined, or output per field type

# df --o -h
# df --output=target,fstype,pcent

space occupied by a file or directory

# du -h

Show all directories occupying more space than 10M

# du -h -t10M

Accounts

Create user account

# useradd <name>

-u UID
-g GID
-d home directory
-c full user name
-s default shell
Delete user account

# userdel <name>

Change user password

# passwd <name>

Modify user account

# usermod <options> <name>

Build Service

Branch & Checkout a Package

$ osc bco <source project> <source package>

Commit changes to package

$ osc commit -m "<comment>"

Submit changed package

$ osc sr

Filesystem layout

  • /bin – Contains useful commands that are used both user and administrators.
  • /boot – This directory contains the boot loader and the Linux kernel.
  • /dev – Contains the special device files for all the devices.
  • /etc – This directory contains the host-specific configuration files for your system.
  • /home – Linux is a multi-user environment so each user is also assigned a specific directory which is accessible only to them and the system administrator.
  • /lib* – Contains shared libraries that are required by system programs.
  • /mnt – A generic mount point.
  • /opt – Contains third-party software that is not part of openSUSE.
  • /proc – Pseudo-file system containing files related to processes and kernel configuration
  • /root – Home directory of the user root.
  • /run – Files the system creates during the course of its operation, and which do not persist across reboots.
  • /sbin – Contains binaries that are essential to the working of the system.
  • /srv – Contains site-specific data which is served by this system.
  • /sys – Pseudo filesystem containing files pertaining to kernel configuration and system state
  • /tmp – Directory to hold temporary files.
  • /usr – Directory contains system files and directories shared by all users.
  • /var – Contains files to which the system writes data during the course of its operation.