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SDB:Download help

tagline: From openSUSE

Need help downloading openSUSE? Or wanting more information about the download of openSUSE?

Before you download

Before downloading your version of openSUSE there are a few things you should consider.

System requirements

Make sure you meet the system requirements. openSUSE supports most PC hardware components. The following requirements should be met to ensure smooth operation of openSUSE:

  • Processor: Intel, AMD, or equivalent processor (x86 or amd64/x64) - including Pentium, Atom, Core, Celeron, Athlon, Sempron, Phenom, FX, and A Series
  • Main memory: 512 MB physical RAM (1 GB recommended)
  • Hard disk: 3 GB available disk space (more is highly recommended)
  • Sound and graphics cards: openSUSE supports most modern sound and graphics cards, with a 800 x 600 display resolution (1024 x 768 or higher recommended)
  • Booting from CD/DVD drive or USB stick for installation, network boot support (PXE), or an existing installation of openSUSE.

Disk space and process time

Downloading large ISO files can sometimes cause issues; here is some advice to make it easier.

  • Most openSUSE ISO downloads are DVD-sized and will not fit on a 700 MB CD.
  • When delivered as a single DVD ISO, openSUSE requires one download of 4.3 GB (see footnote 1)

Bittorrent is the preferred way to download files, as it is more reliable and reduces loads on openSUSE servers. If using bittorrent is not available, the use of a download manager is recommended.

The following table shows estimates of how long the download process takes at various connection speeds:

1 CD ISO (700 MB) 1 DVD ISO (4.7 GB)
56 KBit 28 hours 187 hours
64 KBit (ISDN) 25 hours 164 hours
1024 KBit (Broadband) 1.5 hours 11 hours
2048 KBit (Broadband) 45 minutes 5.5 hours
8192 KBit (Broadband) 12 minutes 1.5 hours
24 MBit (ADSL2) 4 minutes 28 minutes
100 MBit (Fibre) 1 minute 7 minutes

Choose the openSUSE version

For your convenience, the openSUSE project delivers two different versions of openSUSE that you can download, install and redistribute.

  • Released version - a stable version of Linux to run on your personal computer or home server.
  • Development version - an unstable version of Linux to test for bugs or contribute patches and help improve future "Released Versions."

Mostly you will want the released version - the development version is only for people who wish to participate in testing the upcoming release.


Choose the installation type

Local installation

When you choose this installation type, you download CD/DVD images that hold the openSUSE installation sources to your local computer and proceed from there. This has several advantages.

  • You don't depend on an Internet connection during the installation
  • You can share the data on different computers
  • You can reuse the data at any time later

But it has its downsides as well.

  • You transfer a lot of data that you don't actually need
  • Due to size limitations of CDs/DVDs, you get only a subset of all packaged software for openSUSE.

Workflow for the local installation

  1. Download ISO images.
  2. Burn ISO images to blank CD/DVD
  3. Boot your system with the CD/DVD
  4. Install openSUSE

Network installation

If you choose this installation type, you download a small boot medium to start the installation from and the YaST installer does the rest for you. This method also has several advantages.

  • You do not download everything, but just the data you need
  • You need only one blank CD
  • The Internet installation source contains all packaged software for openSUSE

Of course, it also has its downsides.

  • You depend on an Internet connection during the installation
  • It may be very slow depending upon the load of the server and your internet connection speed
  • It may not be possible to connect to the Internet if your network card is not recognized

Workflow for the network installation

  1. Download the boot CD image. The latest NET CDs are in the Factory repository, but before you use it read the article about Factory.
  2. Burn the boot CD image.
  3. Boot your computer from the boot CD.
  4. Point the YaST installer to the installation repository (by pressing F3 and then F4)
  5. Install openSUSE.

Learn more about Network installation.


Choose the architecture

x86 (i586)

This architecture supports the following processors:

  • Intel Pentium 1-4, Pentium M, Celeron, 32bit Xeon, Celeron D, Core Solo/Duo
  • AMD K6, Duron, Athlon, Athlon XP, Athlon MP, Sempron

x86-64

This architecture supports the following processors:

  • AMD Opteron, Athlon 64, Athlon 64 X2, Sempron 64, Turion 64, Phenom
  • Intel Xeon, Xeon MP, Pentium 4 Extreme Edition, Pentium D, Core 2 Duo
  • Processors based on AMD's AMD64 & Intel's EM64T (Intel's implementation of AMD64)
  • Info about AMD64/EM64T

Choose the download protocol

Downloading via HTTP

You could download the openSUSE disk images like you would download a normal file, and just click on the link on the Download page in your web browser. However it's strongly recommended that you use a proper download manager to reduce the risk of corrupted data when doing such a large download.

  • If you use Linux to download, we recommend that you use the commandline tool wget. wget is able to continue the download later after an interruption by adding -c to the wget parameters. A reconnection after a temporary disconnection happens automatically, even without -c. For more information about wget read man wget.
  • If you use an older Linux or Unix to download, we recommend that you use the commandline tool curl, like this: curl -C - -O URL. For more information read man curl.
  • If you use Mac OS or Windows, use your favorite download tool meeting the above requirements.

Downloading via BitTorrent

BitTorrent is an open source peer-to-peer file sharing protocol , designed for sharing large software and media files. Its advantage over plain HTTP is that the clients protect against data corruption, and when multiple downloads of the same file happen concurrently, the downloaders upload to each other, making it possible for the file source to support very large numbers of downloaders with only a modest increase in its load. If enough people participate it will also be faster than the centralized servers - for everybody.

The workflow is simple : once you have downloaded and installed a client, you can start a BitTorrent download by clicking a *.torrent download link in your browser.

  • If you use openSUSE, we recommend that you use the generic BitTorrent client or the KTorrent client. An alternative light-weight command line client is aria2 (Build Service packages here)
  • If you use Windows, three popular options are to use Vuze (be sure you have the Java JRE installed on your computer), the light-weight µTorrent or the original BitTorrent client.

Other BitTorrent clients programs are available for several platforms. You can find links to some BitTorrent clients on the official BitTorrent Web page. For the exact download procedure, look at the documentation for the client you use.

Downloading via Metalinks

Metalinks are an XML format, used by download managers, that contain the mirror and P2P locations of a file along with checksums. Metalink clients offer download resuming, downloading from multiple sources (both mirrors and P2P) simultaneously, automatic checksum verification, and automatic error repair (depending on client used), among other features. Hence using metalinks can deliver higher availability and reliability, self healing downloads, and very fast transfer speeds.

The metalinks are served by the openSUSE download redirector. You can find metalinks for all ISO images below the address http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/openSUSE-current/iso/.

For usage and more information, see Metalinks.

Downloading via FTP

It's recommended you download openSUSE from the Download page. This is primarily for advanced users.

First choose a mirror site near your location. Make sure the mirror site hosts the version of the product you want for the type of media you prefer.

Not all Windows FTP Clients are able to download files bigger than 2 GB. To download a DVD ISO image on a windows machine, make sure that you use NTFS for your filesystem. A ftp client that works with images of this size is for example ncftp.

If you find an ISO location like ftp://ftp.example.org/pub/opensuse/distribution/<release>/iso/<some>.iso, you can get this image either by using your browser, or with the commands

cd <TARGET DIRECTORY>
wget ftp://ftp.example.org/pub/opensuse/distribution/<release>/iso/<some>.iso

After an interruption, you can continue the download by adding -c to the wget parameters:

wget -c ftp://ftp.example.org/pub/opensuse/distribution/<release>/iso/<some>.iso

When the download is finished, you will find a file named <some>.iso in the directory <TARGET DIRECTORY>.


Checksums

Before you burn your CD/DVD images, you should check the files for errors. Two files named *.iso.md5 and *.iso.sha1 are available. These files contains hashes for each ISO image that is available from that download location. The relevant line would look like the following:

8abac6680ecc152f103006b02f9ff67f  some.iso

There is also an file named *.iso.asc which allows to check if the ISO you downloaded is signed by openSUSE. To be sure that download did not contain any errors, you should create this number using MD5 or SHA1 algorithm for your own ISO image by downloading the .md5 .sha1 or .asc files for your ISO to the same folder and verify as follows.

Using Linux

To verify all the checksums automatically, and have your system do the verification, type:

md5sum -c <some>.iso.md5
sha1sum -c <some>.iso.sha1

If there is any difference between the output of the checksum command and the above number, the download is broken and should be repeated or repaired.

To verify the .asc signature you first need to import the Projects signing key with the following commands:

 gpg --recv-keys 3DBDC284
 gpg --fingerprint "openSUSE Project Signing Key <opensuse@opensuse.org>"

Now you can verify the signature with

 gpg -a <some>.iso.asc 

You will get output like:

 gpg: Signature made Thu Aug 30 12:02:40 2012 CEST using RSA key ID 3DBDC284                                                                                                    
 gpg: Good signature from "openSUSE Project Signing Key 
 <opensuse@opensuse.org>"                                                                                                
 gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!                                                                                                              
 gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
 Primary key fingerprint: 22C0 7BA5 3417 8CD0 2EFE  22AA B88B 2FD4 3DBD C284

The Primary key fingerprint should be

22C0 7BA5 3417 8CD0 2EFE 22AA B88B 2FD4 3DBD C284

Please refer to the GPG documentation about the warning message, it does not indicate a problem but only the fact that you have not signed the key yourself.

Using Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows does not include a program for calculating checksums, but there are several applications designed to do md5sum/sha1sum checking, for example

  • md5deep (free) for several operating systems
  • QuickPar (free) for the md5 checksum files only

While there may be more, it is known that not all utilities available are reliable. For example, the utility "MD5 Checker 2.31 from TSoft" revealed in 2011 (post number 24 of this thread this thread) caused much frustration.



Repairing a download

If you are using Linux as operating system, you may repair broken ISO downloads with the command rsync. To do that, choose a mirror that supports this protocol from the mirror list and enter the following:

rsync rsync://<name-of-mirror>/<opensuse-directory>/ 

This will show the content of the directory on the server. By appending the names of the subdirectories to the command, you can get to the directory where the ISO is located on the remote computer. Then

touch <path-to-your-local-ISO-file>
rsync -avP rsync://<name-of-mirror>/<path-to-remote-ISO-file> <path-to-your-local-ISO-file>

will repair the file, only downloading the needed data to correct it. For further information please refer to the manpage of rsync, by entering (in a shell):

man rsync

Burn the ISO image(s)

Using Linux

After successfully downloading the ISO image(s), use the burning application of your choice to burn the ISO file(s) to a blank CD or a blank DVD (Note that from 12.3 on, the ISO won't fit onto a CD anymore, use a USB-stick instead). On systems running openSUSE, use the K3B or Brasero program to burn the discs. Select the option that allows burning a CD or DVD image and/or a ISO9660 file system. Do not burn the ISO image(s) the same way as you would burn files.

From the command line you can use the program cdrecord.

cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrecorder speed=44 driveropts=burnproof -dao -eject -v isofile

Using Microsoft Windows

Windows XP can't burn ISO images without third party software. The unauthorized ISO Recorder PowerToy can add this capability to Windows XP. For users coming from any version of Microsoft Windows, there exists a number of third party CD-burner applications capable of burning ISO images, usually a burning program for Microdoft Windows is provided with the drive - use your favourite search engine to find them. A good open source software is InfraRecorder, a good freeware software is Cd Burner XP. Be sure when you burn your iso image that you burn it using "disc-at-once" or "session-at-once", and not "track-at-once". Some software (Nero) defaults to "track-at-once".

Using MacOS X (10.3 and above)

In the Finder, open the Go menu and select Utilities. In the Utilities folder you will find an application called Disk Utility. Open it, then drag and drop the downloaded ISO image in to the left hand sidebar. Select the image, click Burn and insert your CD/DVD. For more information check Apple's support page on the subject.

Make a bootable Live USB stick

Refer to this how-to if using Linux, MacOS, or Windows: SDB:Live USB stick


Deltaisos

Delta ISOs allow you to download a small file instead of the complete ISO if you have the previous ISO. This is primarily used by people testing the Development version of openSUSE. The deltaiso, available at http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/openSUSE-current/delta/, contains the differences between the old iso and the new one. Applying the deltaiso to the old iso will give you the new iso.

The program applydeltaiso may take a rather long time to run. On some systems it takes more than 30 minutes per CD, in which case the download of a full length iso-image might be faster!


Using Linux

To use this feature, you need the package deltarpm that is installed by default. The syntax for applydeltaiso is:

applydeltaiso old.iso delta.iso new.iso

For example:

applydeltaiso openSUSE-11.1-RC1-KDE4-LiveCD-i686.iso openSUSE-11.1-RC1_GM-KDE4-LiveCD-i686.delta.iso openSUSE-11.1-KDE4-LiveCD-i686.iso

If you deleted the ISOs of the previous milestone, don't worry. applydeltaiso can also work with the CDs in your CD-ROM drive. For example, if you have the old openSUSE-11.1-RC1-KDE4-LiveCD-i686.iso in your CD-ROM drive (/dev/hdc), use this command:

applydeltaiso /dev/hdc openSUSE-11.1-RC1_GM-KDE4-LiveCD-i686.delta.iso openSUSE-11.1-KDE4-LiveCD-i686.iso

Check the sum afterwards as described in Checksums. The process of applying the Delta ISO takes quite some time and needs the disk space to unpack all ISO images.

Using Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows doesn't include a program for applying a delta ISO.


Troubleshooting downloads

Downloading large files such as ISO images is sometimes difficult. Here are some tips for avoiding the most common issues:

  • 'Not-enough-space' error may occur if the DVD ISO is being downloaded to a FAT32 file system, despite the fact that your drive may say you have enough space. The FAT32 file system has a file size limit of 4 GiB minus 1 byte (or 4,294,967,295 bytes), and therefore the DVD ISO (4.3GB) will not fit. To resolve this, download the CD ISOs or download to another drive.
  • Consider using Metalinks or BitTorrent instead of FTP: sometimes they achieve better performance rates than FTP downloads, and they can ensure that the data was correctly transferred.
  • Consider using a download manager or an FTP client that supports resume: we strongly suggest this kind of softwares because if download problems occur, the resume function allows you to continue a download made earlier rather than having to start over again. Many download managers also now support checksum verification, which is recommended. Choose a download manager with the features you need from this comprehensive list.
  • Proxy disallowing FTP ? : some proxies are configured not to allow FTP access. If you are using a proxy, download from an HTTP mirror site instead.
  • Proxy has a download size limitation ? : when downloading the DVD ISO, make sure that your proxy and your download client support files 4.3GB or larger. If the download stops prematurely close to that size, your client most probably does not support large files. If you are using Linux, you can use Konqueror (KDE browser), curl, or lftp (lukemftp). On MacOS, Safari and the default ftp-client should work. If you are using Windows, FileZilla is worth a try.

See also