SDB:Zypper manual (plain)

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This is plain copy of manual pages for zypper so that is possible to reference online without going trough explanation how to use manual pages.

Applicable for zypper 1.14.33

ZYPPER(8)                                               ZYPPER                                              ZYPPER(8)

NAME
       zypper - Command-line interface to ZYpp system management library (libzypp)

SYNOPSIS
       zypper [--global-opts] command [--command-opts] [command-arguments]

       zypper subcommand [--command-opts] [command-arguments]

       zypper help command

DESCRIPTION
       zypper is a command-line interface to ZYpp system management library (libzypp). It can be used to install,
       update, remove software, manage repositories, perform various queries, and more.

CONCEPTS
       Most of the following concepts are common for all applications based on the libzypp package management
       library, but there are some zypper specifics.

   System Packages
       The set of installed packages on a system is sometimes denoted as repository @System or System Packages. In
       contrast to available repositories providing packages which can be installed, @System provides packages which
       can only be deleted. Installed packages which are not also provided by at least one of the available
       repositories are often denoted as being unwanted, orphaned or dropped.

   Repositories
       Libzypp works with repository metadata, this is information about packages and their relations extracted from
       RPM packages and other data like patch information, pattern definitions, etc. These data are stored together
       with the RPM files in folders called repositories. Repositories can be placed on various media like an HTTP or
       FTP server, DVD, or a folder on a local disc.

       There is a special set of commands in zypper intended to manipulate repositories. Also many commands and
       options take a repository as an argument. See section COMMANDS, subsection Repository Management for more
       details.

   GPG checks
       Disabling GPG checks is not recommended. Signing data enables the recipient to verify that no modifications
       occurred after the data were signed. Accepting data with no, wrong or unknown signature can lead to a
       corrupted system and in extreme cases even to a system compromise.

       Zypp verifies the authenticity of repository metadata by checking their GPG signature. If the repository
       metadata are signed with a trusted key and successfully verified, packages from this repository are accepted
       for installation if they match the checksum provided in the metadata. Using unsigned repositories needs to be
       confirmed.

       If the repository metadata are not signed, the GPG signature of each downloaded rpm package is checked before
       accepting it for installation. Packages from unsigned repositories need a valid GPG signature. Using unsigned
       packages needs to be confirmed.

       The above is the default behavior defined by settings in /etc/zypp/zypp.conf.

       The addrepo and modifyrepo commands provide further options to tune the behavior per repository. It is for
       example possible to relax the need to confirm installing unsigned packages for a specific repository. But if
       you do so, you should be very certain that an attacker can hardly modify the package data within the
       repository or on the way to your machine. See section COMMANDS for details about the command options.

   Resource Identifiers (URI)
       To specify locations of repositories or other resources (RPM files, .repo files) you can use any type of URI
       supported by libzypp. In addition Zypper accepts a special URI identifying openSUSE Build Service (OBS)
       repositories in the addrepo command. These URIs have the form of obs://’project'/[platform].

       See section COMMANDS, subsection Repository Management for a complete list and examples of supported URI
       formats.

   Refresh
       Refreshing a repository means downloading metadata of packages from the medium (if needed), storing it in
       local cache (typically under /var/cache/zypp/raw/’alias' directory) and preparsing the metadata into .solv
       files (building the solv cache), typically under /var/cache/zypp/solv/’alias'.

       The metadata get refreshed either automatically or on user request. An automatic refresh takes place right
       before reading metadata from the database if the auto-refresh is enabled for the repository and the metadata
       is reported to be out of date. If the auto-refresh is disabled, the repository will only be refreshed on user
       request. You can request a refresh by calling zypper refresh (see the documentation of the refresh command for
       details).

       The repository metadata are checked for changes before actually doing the refresh. A change is detected by
       downloading one or two metadata index files (small files) and comparing the checksums of the cached ones and
       the remote ones. If the files differ, the repository is out of date and will be refreshed.

       To delay the up-to-date check (and thus the automatic refresh) for a certain number of minutes, edit the value
       of the repo.refresh.delay attribute of ZYpp config file (/etc/zypp/zypp.conf). This means, zypper will not
       even try to download and check the index files, and you will be able to use zypper for operations like search
       or info without internet access or root privileges.

   Services
       Services are one level above repositories and serve to manage repositories or to do some special tasks.
       Libzypp currently supports Repository Index Service (RIS) and Plugin Service.

       Repository Index Service (RIS) is a special type of repository which contains a list of other repositories.
       This list can be generated dynamically by the server according to some URI parameters or user name, or can be
       static. Once such service is added to your system, zypper takes care of adding, modifying, or removing these
       repositories on your system to reflect the current list. See section Service Management and
       https://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Standards_Repository_Index_Service for more details.

   Package Types
       Zypper works with several types of resource objects, called resolvables. A resolvable might be a package,
       patch, pattern, product; basically any kind of object with dependencies to other objects.

       package
           An ordinary RPM package.

       patch
           A released patch conflicts with the affected/vulnerable versions of a collection of packages. As long as
           any of these affected/vulnerable versions are installed, the conflict triggers and the patch is classified
           as needed, optional or as unwanted if the patch is locked. + Selecting the patch, the conflict is resolved
           by updating all installed and affected/vulnerable packages to a version providing the fix. When updating
           the packages zypper always aims for the latest available version. Resolved patches are classified as
           either applied or not needed, depending on whether they refer to actually installed packages. + Depending
           on the kind of defect, patches are classified by category and severity. Commonly used values for category
           are security, recommended, optional, feature, document or yast. Commonly used values for severity are
           critical, important, moderate, low or unspecified. + Note that the patch command does not apply optional
           patches (category optional or feature) by default. If you actually want to consider all optional patches
           as being needed, say patch --with-optional. Specific patches can be applied using the install command
           (e.g. zypper install patch:openSUSE-2014-7).

       pattern
           A group of packages required or recommended to install some functionality.

       product
           A group of packages which are necessary to install a product.

       srcpackage
           Source code package (.src.rpm). This type works in search and install commands.

       application
           Legacy: Since libzypp-17.7.0 this type is no longer available.

       Throughout this manual we will often refer to resolvables simply as packages and to resolvable types as
       package type or kind. These type names can be used as arguments of --type option in several commands like
       install, info, or search. Commands should also allow to specify resolvables as KIND:’NAME' (e.g.
       patch:openSUSE-2014-7).

   Package Dependencies
       Software packages depend on each other in various ways. Packages usually require or recommend other packages,
       but they can also conflict with them. Packages may support specific hardware or language settings. Zypper uses
       a dependency solver to find out which packages need to be installed to satisfy the user’s request.

       If you do not request a specific version of a package the solver will pick a reasonable one. The solvers
       general attitude when resolving a job is to focus on installing the best version of the requested package and
       to add or update dependencies as they are needed. Aside from this Focus on Job, which is the default, two
       other focus modes are available:

       In Focus on Installed mode the solver focuses on applying as little changes to the installed packages as
       needed. Choosing an older version of a requested package is valid if it’s dependencies require less changes to
       the system. The solver will try to avoid updating already installed packages.

       In Focus on Update mode the solver focuses on updating the requested package and all its dependencies as much
       as possible. Beware, installing a single package in this mode may easily lead to a mini system update.

       For a single command the focus mode can be set using the --solver-focus MODE switch. Valid modes are Job,
       Installed or Update. If you want to change the default mode for your system, set
       [/etc/zypp/zypp.conf:solver.focus] to the desired value.

   Automatically installed packages
       Packages added by the dependency solver in order to resolve a user’s request are remembered as having been
       'automatically installed'. They may later be removed, if no more user installed packages depend on them (e.g.
       by zypper remove --clean-deps).

       In the S+tatus+ column the search command distinguishes between user installed packages (i+) and automatically
       installed packages (i).

   Package File Conflicts
       File conflicts happen when two packages attempt to install files with the same name but different contents.
       This may happen if you are installing a newer version of a package without erasing the older version, of if
       two unrelated packages each install a file with the same name.

       As checking for file conflicts requires access to the full filelist of each package being installed, zypper
       will be able to check for file conflicts only if all packages are downloaded in advance (see
       --download-in-advance). If you are doing a --dry-run no packages are downloaded, so the file conflict check
       will skip packages not available in the packages cache. To get a meaningful file conflict check use --dry-run
       together with --download-only.

       As the reason for file conflicts usually is a poor package design or lack of coordination between the people
       building the packages, they are not easy to resolve. By using the --replacefiles option you can force zypper
       to replace the conflicting files. Nevertheless this may damage the package whose file gets replaced.

COMMANDS
       zypper provides a number of commands. Each command accepts the options listed in the GLOBAL OPTIONS section.
       These options must be specified before the command name. In addition, many commands have specific options,
       which are listed in this section. These command-specific options must be specified after the name of the
       command and before any of the command arguments.

       Zypper also provides limited support for writing extensions/subcommands in any language. See section
       SUBCOMMANDS for details.

   General Commands
       help [command]
           Shows help texts. If invoked without any argument (just zypper or zypper help), zypper displays global
           help text which lists all available global options and commands. + If invoked with a command name
           argument, zypper displays help for the specified command, if such command exists. Long as well as short
           variants of the command names can be used. + For your convenience, zypper help can also be invoked in any
           of the following ways:

           ;; $ *zypper -h*|*--help* ['command']
           ;; $ *zypper* ['command'] *-h*|*--help*

       shell (sh)
           Starts a shell for entering multiple commands in one session. Exit the shell using exit, quit, or Ctrl-D.
           + The shell support is not complete so expect bugs there. However, there’s no urgent need to use the shell
           since libzypp became so fast thanks to the SAT solver and its tools (openSUSE 11.0), but still, you’re
           welcome to experiment with it.

   Package Management Commands
       info (if) [options] name...
           Displays detailed information about the specified packages. + For each specified package, zypper finds the
           best available version in defined repositories and shows information for this package.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types.

           --provides
               Show symbols the package provides.

           --requires
               Show symbols the package requires.

           --conflicts
               Show symbols the package conflicts with.

           --obsoletes
               Show symbols the package obsoletes.

           --recommends
               Show symbols the package recommends.

           --suggests
               Show symbols the package suggests.

           --supplements
               Show symbols the package supplements.

           Examples:

               $ zypper info workrave
                   Show information about package workrave

               $ zypper info -t patch libzypp
                   Show information about patch libzypp

               $ zypper info -t pattern lamp_server
                   Show information about pattern lamp_server

       install (in) [options] name|capability|rpm_file_uri...
           Install or update packages.

           The packages can be selected by their name or by a capability they provide.
               + A capability is formed by "NAME[.’ARCH'][ OP EDITION]", where ARCH is an architecture code, OP is
               one of <, <=, =, >=, or > and EDITION is "VERSION[-’RELEASE']". For example: zypper=0.8.8-2 + The NAME
               component of a capability is not only a package name but any symbol provided by packages: /bin/vi,
               libcurl.so.3, perl(Time::ParseDate). Just remember to quote to protect the special characters from the
               shell, for example: zypper\>0.8.10 or 'zypper>0.8.10'. + If EDITION is not specified, the newest
               installable version will be installed. This also means that if the package is already installed and
               newer versions are available, it will get upgraded to the newest installable version. + If ARCH is not
               specified, or the last dot of the capability name string is not followed by known architecture, the
               solver will treat the whole string as a capability name. If the ARCH is known, the solver will select
               a package matching that architecture and complain if such package cannot be found.

           Zypper is also able to install plain RPM files while trying to satisfy their dependencies using packages
           from defined repositories. You can install a plain RPM file by specifying its location in the install
           command arguments either as a local path or an URI. E.g.:
               + $ zypper install ~/rpms/foo.rpm http://some.site/bar.rpm. + Zypper will report packages that it
               cannot find. Further, in interactive mode, zypper proceeds with installation of the rest of requested
               packages, and it will abort immediately in non-interactive mode. In both cases zypper returns
               ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_CAP_NOT_FOUND after finishing the operation. + Zypper will collect the files in a
               temporary plaindir repository and mark the respective packages for installation. If --download-only is
               used, the downloaded packages will be available in /var/cache/zypper/RPMS until you actually install
               them or call zypper clean to clear the package caches.

           In the install command, you can also specify packages you wish to remove by prepending their names by a -
           or ! character. For example:
               + $ zypper install \!Firefox + In contrast to zypper remove Firefox which removes Firefox and its
               dependent packages, the install command will try to keep dependent packages installed by looking for
               Firefox alternatives. + Note that if you choose to use - with the first package you specify, you need
               to write -- before it to prevent its interpretation as a command option: + $ zypper install
               --  -boring-game great-game great-game-manual

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times. + Using --repo is discouraged as it currently hides unmentioned repositories from the
               resolver, leading to inexpertly decisions. In the future --repo will become an alias for --from.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package to install (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package
               types. Use zypper se -t type [name] to look for available items of this type and zypper info -t type
               name to display more detailed information about the item. + If patch is specified, zypper will install
               and/or remove packages to satisfy specified patch. This is a way to ensure that specific bug fix is
               installed. Use zypper list-patches to look for applicable patches. + If product or pattern are
               specified, zypper ensures that all required (and optionally recommended) packages are installed.

           -n, --name
               Select packages by their name, don’t try to select by capabilities.

           -f, --force
               Install even if the item is already installed (reinstall), downgraded or changes vendor or
               architecture.

           --oldpackage
               Allow to replace a newer item with an older one. Handy if you are doing a rollback. Unlike --force it
               will not enforce a reinstall, if the item is already installed with the requested version.

           --from alias|name|#|URI
               Select packages from specified repository. If strings specified as arguments to the install command
               match packages in repositories specified in this option, they will be marked for installation. This
               option currently implies --name, but allows using wildcards for specifying packages.

           -C, --capability
               Select packages by capabilities.

           -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
               Automatically say yes to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this option, you choose to
               agree with licenses of all third-party software this command will install. This option is particularly
               useful for administrators installing the same set of packages on multiple machines (by an automated
               process) and have the licenses confirmed before.

           --auto-agree-with-product-licenses
               Automatically accept product licenses only. This is used by tools like SUSEconnect, which ask for
               confirmation before the product gets registered. So there’s no need to confirm the product license
               again at install time.

           --replacefiles
               Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages. Default is to
               treat file conflicts as an error. --download-as-needed disables the file conflict check because access
               to all packages file lists is needed in advance in order to perform the check.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the installation, do not actually install any package. If used together with --download-only a
               meaningful file conflict check can be performed (see section Package File Conflicts).

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           --allow-unsigned-rpm
               Silently install unsigned rpm packages given as commandline parameters.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the dependencies were not solved
               all right and attach the resulting /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use
               this option, simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with unfulfilled requirements. This
               is the default when removing packages (zypper remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in
               case both are specified on the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems and prompt the user to
               resolve them manually. This is the default except when removing packages (zypper remove).

           --solver-focus MODE
               Set the solvers general attitude when resolving a job. Valid modes are Job, Installed or Update. See
               section Package Dependencies for details.

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default behavior is determined
               by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior is determined by
               [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Download-and-install mode options:

           -d, --download-only
               Only download the packages for later installation. If used together with --dry-run a meaningful file
               conflict check can be performed (see section Package File Conflicts).

           --download-in-advance
               First download all packages, then start installing. This is the default.

           --download-in-heaps
               Download a minimal set of packages that can be installed without leaving the system in broken state,
               and install them. Then download and install another heap until all are installed. This helps to keep
               the system in consistent state without the need to download all packages in advance, which combines
               the advantages of --download-in-advance and --download-as-needed. This is the default mode. + NOTE:
               While the resolver is not capable of building heaps, this behaves the same as --download-in-advance.

           --download-as-needed
               Download one package, install it immediately, and continue with the rest until all are installed.

           --download mode
               Use the specified download-and-install mode. Available modes are: only, in-advance, in-heaps,
               as-needed. See corresponding --download-’mode' options for their description.

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --allow-downgrade, --no-allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --allow-name-change, --no-allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no will not replace
               packages which have been renamed.

           --allow-arch-change, --no-allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --allow-vendor-change, --no-allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no might be useful if
               you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to the distributions version (or vice
               versa).

           Examples:

               $ zypper install -t pattern lamp_server
                   Install lamp_server pattern.

               $ zypper install --no-recommends gv
                   Install GhostScript viewer, but ignore recommended packages.

               $ zypper install virtualbox-ose-2.0.6

               $ zypper install virtualbox-ose=2.0.6

               $ zypper install virtualbox-ose = 2.0.6
                   Install version 2.0.6 of virtualbox-ose package.

       source-install (si) name...
           Install specified source packages and their build dependencies. If the name of a binary package is given,
           the corresponding source package is looked up and installed instead. + This command will try to find the
           newest available versions of the source packages and uses rpm -i to install them, optionally together with
           all the packages that are required to build the source package. The default location where rpm installs
           source packages to is /usr/src/packages/{SPECS,SOURCES}, but the values can be changed in your local rpm
           configuration. In case of doubt try executing rpm --eval "%{_specdir} and %{_sourcedir}". + Note that the
           source packages must be available in repositories you are using. You can check whether a repository
           contains any source packages using the following command:

               ;; $ '*zypper search -t srcpackage -r* alias'|'name'|'#'|'URI'

           -d, --build-deps-only
               Install only build dependencies of specified packages.

           -D, --no-build-deps
               Don’t install build dependencies.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           --download-only
               Only download the packages, do not install.

           Examples:

               $ zypper si -d dbus-1
                   Install build dependencies of dbus-1 source package.

       verify (ve) [options]
           Check whether dependencies of installed packages are satisfied. + In case that any dependency problems are
           found, zypper suggests packages to install or remove to fix them.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the repair, do not actually do anything to the system. If used together with --download-only a
               meaningful file conflict check can be performed (see section Package File Conflicts).

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the dependencies were not solved
               all right and attach the resulting /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use
               this option, simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with unfulfilled requirements. This
               is the default when removing packages (zypper remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in
               case both are specified on the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems and prompt the user to
               resolve them manually. This is the default except when removing packages (zypper remove).

           --solver-focus MODE
               Set the solvers general attitude when resolving a job. Valid modes are Job, Installed or Update. See
               section Package Dependencies for details.

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default behavior is determined
               by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior is determined by
               [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --allow-downgrade, --no-allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --allow-name-change, --no-allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no will not replace
               packages which have been renamed.

           --allow-arch-change, --no-allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --allow-vendor-change, --no-allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no might be useful if
               you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to the distributions version (or vice
               versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the install command.

       install-new-recommends (inr) [options]
           Install newly added packages recommended by already installed ones. This command basically re-evaluates
           the recommendations of all installed packages and fills up the system accordingly. You don’t want to call
           this unconditionally on small or minimal systems, as it may easily add a large number of packages. +
           Called as zypper inr --no-recommends, it restricts the command to just look for packages supporting
           available hardware, languages or filesystems. Usefull after having added e.g. new hardware or driver
           repos. This is also the default behavior if you have set [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the installation, do not actually install anything. If used together with --download-only a
               meaningful file conflict check can be performed (see section Package File Conflicts).

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the dependencies were not solved
               all right and attach the resulting /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use
               this option, simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with unfulfilled requirements. This
               is the default when removing packages (zypper remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in
               case both are specified on the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems and prompt the user to
               resolve them manually. This is the default except when removing packages (zypper remove).

           --solver-focus MODE
               Set the solvers general attitude when resolving a job. Valid modes are Job, Installed or Update. See
               section Package Dependencies for details.

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default behavior is determined
               by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior is determined by
               [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --allow-downgrade, --no-allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --allow-name-change, --no-allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no will not replace
               packages which have been renamed.

           --allow-arch-change, --no-allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --allow-vendor-change, --no-allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no might be useful if
               you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to the distributions version (or vice
               versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the install command.

       remove (rm) [options] name...

       remove (rm) [options] --capability capability...
           Remove (uninstall) packages. + The remove command will uninstall the selected and their dependent
           packages. It will not try to install alternatives in order to keep dependent packages installed. If you
           want this, use zypper install !name. + The packages can be selected by their name or by a capability they
           provide. For details on package selection see the install command description.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types. +
               Since patches are not installed in sense of copying files or recording a database entry, they cannot
               be uninstalled, even though zypper shows them as installed. The installed status is determined solely
               based on the installed status of its required dependencies. If these dependencies are satisfied, the
               patch is rendered installed.

           -n, --name
               Select packages by their name (default).

           -C, --capability
               Select packages by capabilities.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the removal of packages, do not actually remove anything.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the dependencies were not solved
               all right and attach the resulting /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use
               this option, simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with unfulfilled requirements. This
               is the default when removing packages (zypper remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in
               case both are specified on the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems and prompt the user to
               resolve them manually. This is the default except when removing packages (zypper remove).

           --solver-focus MODE
               Set the solvers general attitude when resolving a job. Valid modes are Job, Installed or Update. See
               section Package Dependencies for details.

           -u, --clean-deps
               Automatically remove dependencies which become unneeded after removal of requested packages.

           -U, --no-clean-deps
               No automatic removal of unneeded dependencies.

       purge-kernels [options]
           Autoremoves installed kernels. + Automatically cleans up installed kernels according to the rules defined
           in [zypp.conf:multiversion.kernels] which can be given as <version>, latest(-N), running, oldest(+N).

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the removal of packages, do not actually remove anything.

   Update Management Commands
       list-updates (lu) [options]
           List available updates. + This command will list only installable updates, i.e. updates which have no
           dependency problems, or which do not change package vendor. This list is what the update command will
           propose to install. To list all packages for which newer version are available, use --all option.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types. +
               If patch is specified, zypper acts as if the list-patches command was executed.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           -a, --all
               List all packages for which newer versions are available, regardless whether they are installable or
               not.

           --best-effort
               See the update command for description.

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --allow-downgrade, --no-allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --allow-name-change, --no-allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no will not replace
               packages which have been renamed.

           --allow-arch-change, --no-allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --allow-vendor-change, --no-allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no might be useful if
               you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to the distributions version (or vice
               versa).

       update (up) [options] [packagename]...
           Update installed packages with newer versions, where possible. + This command will not update packages
           which would require change of package vendor unless the vendor is specified in /etc/zypp/vendors.d, or
           which would require manual resolution of problems with dependencies. Such non-installable updates will
           then be listed in separate section of the summary as "The following package updates will NOT be
           installed:". + To update individual packages, specify one or more package names. You can use the * and ?
           wildcard characters in the package names to specify multiple packages matching the pattern.

           -t, --type type
               Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types. +
               If patch is specified, zypper acts as if the patches command was executed.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           --skip-interactive
               This will skip interactive patches, that is, those that need reboot, contain a message, or update a
               package whose license needs to be confirmed.

           --with-interactive
               Avoid skipping of interactive patches when in non-interactive mode.

           -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
               Automatically say yes to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this option, you choose to
               agree with licenses of all third-party software this command will install. This option is particularly
               useful for administrators installing the same set of packages on multiple machines (by an automated
               process) and have the licenses confirmed before.

           --auto-agree-with-product-licenses
               Automatically accept product licenses only. This is used by tools like SUSEconnect, which ask for
               confirmation before the product gets registered. So there’s no need to confirm the product license
               again at install time.

           --replacefiles
               Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages. Default is to
               treat file conflicts as an error. --download-as-needed disables the fileconflict check because access
               to all packages filelists is needed in advance in order to perform the check.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the update, do not actually install or update any package. If used together with --download-only
               a meaningful file conflict check can be performed (see section Package File Conflicts).

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           --best-effort
               Do a best effort approach to update. This method does not explicitly select packages with best version
               and architecture, but instead requests installation of a package with higher version than the
               installed one and leaves the rest on the dependency solver. This method is always used for packages,
               and is optional for products and patterns. It is not applicable to patches.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the dependencies were not solved
               all right and attach the resulting /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use
               this option, simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with unfulfilled requirements. This
               is the default when removing packages (zypper remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in
               case both are specified on the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems and prompt the user to
               resolve them manually. This is the default except when removing packages (zypper remove).

           --solver-focus MODE
               Set the solvers general attitude when resolving a job. Valid modes are Job, Installed or Update. See
               section Package Dependencies for details.

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default behavior is determined
               by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior is determined by
               [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --allow-downgrade, --no-allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --allow-name-change, --no-allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no will not replace
               packages which have been renamed.

           --allow-arch-change, --no-allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --allow-vendor-change, --no-allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no might be useful if
               you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to the distributions version (or vice
               versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the install command
           description.

       list-patches (lp) [options]
           List all applicable patches. + This command is similar to zypper list-updates -t patch. + Note that
           optional arguments of some of the following options must be specified using = instead of a space.

           -b, --bugzilla[='#[,...']]
               List applicable patches for all Bugzilla issues, or issues whose number matches the given string.

           --cve[='#[,...']]
               List applicable patches for all CVE issues, or issues whose number matches the given string.

           --date YYYY-MM-DD[,...]
               List only patches issued up to, but not including, the specified date.

           -g, --category category[,...]
               List only patches with this category. See section Package Types for a list of commonly used category
               values.

           --severity severity[,...]
               List only patches with this severity. See section Package Types for a list of commonly used severity
               values.

           --issues[=’string'[,...]]
               Look for issues whose number, summary, or description matches the specified string. Issues found by
               number are displayed separately from those found by descriptions. In the latter case, use zypper
               patch-info patchname to get information about issues the patch fixes.

           -a, *--all
               By default, only patches that are applicable on your system are listed. This option causes all
               available released patches to be listed. This option can be combined with all the rest of the
               list-updates command options.

           --with-optional, --without-optional
               Whether applicable optional patches should be treated as needed or be excluded. The default is to
               exclude optional patches.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

       patch-check (pchk)
           Check for patches. Displays a count of applicable patches and how many of them have the security category.
           + See also the EXIT CODES section for details on exit status of 0, 100, and 101 returned by this command.

           --updatestack-only
               Check only for patches which affect the package management itself.

           --with-optional, --without-optional
               Whether applicable optional patches should be treated as needed or be excluded. The default is to
               exclude optional patches.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Check for patches only in the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can
               be used multiple times.

       patch [options]
           Install all available needed patches. + If there are patches that affect the package management itself,
           those will be installed first and you will be asked to run the patch command again. + This command is
           similar to zypper update -t patch.

           --updatestack-only
               Install only patches which affect the package management itself and exit.

           --with-update
               Additionally try to update all packages not covered by patches. This is basically the same as running
               zypper update afterwards. + The option is ignored, if the patch command must update the update stack
               first, thus it can not be combined with the --updatestack-only option.

           --with-optional, --without-optional
               Whether applicable optional patches should be treated as needed or be excluded. The default is to
               exclude optional patches.

           -b, --bugzilla #[,...]
               Install patch fixing a Bugzilla issue specified by number. Use list-patches --bugzilla command to get
               a list of applicable patches for specific issues.

           --cve #[,...]
               Install patch fixing a MITRE’s CVE issue specified by number. Use list-patches --cve command to get a
               list of applicable patches for specific issues.

           --date YYYY-MM-DD[,...]
               Install only patches issued up to, but not including, the specified date.

           -g, --category category[,...]
               Install only patches with this category. Use list-patches --category command to get a list of
               available patches with a specific category. See section Package Types for a list of commonly used
               category values.

           --severity severity[,...]
               Install only patches with this severity. Use list-patches --severity command to get a list of
               available patches with a specific severity. See section Package Types for a list of commonly used
               severity values.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           --skip-interactive
               This will skip interactive patches, that is, those that need reboot, contain a message, or update a
               package whose license needs to be confirmed.

           --with-interactive
               Avoid skipping of interactive patches when in non-interactive mode.

           -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
               Automatically say yes to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this option, you choose to
               agree with licenses of all third-party software this command will install. This option is particularly
               useful for administrators installing the same set of packages on multiple machines (by an automated
               process) and have the licenses confirmed before.

           --auto-agree-with-product-licenses
               Automatically accept product licenses only. This is used by tools like SUSEconnect, which ask for
               confirmation before the product gets registered. So there’s no need to confirm the product license
               again at install time.

           --replacefiles
               Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages. Default is to
               treat file conflicts as an error. --download-as-needed disables the fileconflict check because access
               to all packages filelists is needed in advance in order to perform the check.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the update, do not actually update. If used together with --download-only a meaningful file
               conflict check can be performed (see section Package File Conflicts).

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the dependencies were not solved
               all right and attach the resulting /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use
               this option, simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with unfulfilled requirements. This
               is the default when removing packages (zypper remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in
               case both are specified on the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems and prompt the user to
               resolve them manually. This is the default except when removing packages (zypper remove).

           --solver-focus MODE
               Set the solvers general attitude when resolving a job. Valid modes are Job, Installed or Update. See
               section Package Dependencies for details.

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default behavior is determined
               by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior is determined by
               [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --allow-downgrade, --no-allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --allow-name-change, --no-allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no will not replace
               packages which have been renamed.

           --allow-arch-change, --no-allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --allow-vendor-change, --no-allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no might be useful if
               you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to the distributions version (or vice
               versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the install command
           description.

       dist-upgrade (dup) [options]
           Perform a distribution upgrade. This command applies the state of (specified) repositories onto the
           system; upgrades (or even downgrades) installed packages to versions found in repositories, removes
           packages that are no longer in the repositories and pose a dependency problem for the upgrade, handles
           package splits and renames, etc. + If no repositories are specified via the --from option, zypper will do
           a global upgrade with all defined repositories. This global form of dup will also consider unchanged
           installed packages and re-evaluate their dependencies. This can be a problem if the system contains
           conflicting repositories, like repositories for two different distribution releases. This often happens if
           one forgets to remove an older release repository after adding a new one, say openSUSE 13.1 and openSUSE
           13.2. + For all repositories which have the distribution version within their URL (like
           https://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.1/repo/oss) using the $releasever variable instead may be
           helpful ( https://download.opensuse.org/distribution/$releasever/repo/oss). The variable is per default
           substituted by the current distributions version (13.1). + This value can be temporarily overwritten in
           the current zypper command by using the --releasever global option. Calling zypper --releasever 13.2'...'
           will cause these repos to use the new location (https://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.2/repo/oss)
           without the need to add/remove anything. But you’ll need to use --releasever 13.2 with every zypper
           command until the distribution upgrade was actually performed. Once the dup is done, $releasever will
           default to the new distribution version 13.2 and --releasever is no longer needed. + It might be less
           tedious to persistently set $releasever to the target distribution value, so --releasever is not needed at
           all. See section Repository Management for more info about variable substitution and the definition of
           custom variables. + Note: distribution upgrades in openSUSE are currently only supported between
           consecutive releases. To upgrade multiple releases, upgrade each consecutive release one at a time. For
           more details see http://en.opensuse.org/SDB:System_upgrade and the openSUSE release notes at
           http://doc.opensuse.org/release-notes/.

           --from alias|name|#|URI
               The option can be used multiple times and restricts the upgrade to the specified repositories only.
               Nevertheless all enabled repositories are visible to the resolver and will be considered to satisfy
               dependency problems.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. + Using --repo is
               discouraged as it currently hides unmentioned repositories from the resolver, leading to inexpertly
               decisions. This is because packages originally installed from the hidden repos will now be treated as
               orphaned or dropped. They can be silently removed if involved in a dependency conflict. In the future
               --repo will become an alias for --from.

           -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
               Automatically say yes to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this option, you choose to
               agree with licenses of all third-party software this command will install. This option is particularly
               useful for administrators installing the same set of packages on multiple machines (by an automated
               process) and have the licenses confirmed before.

           --auto-agree-with-product-licenses
               Automatically accept product licenses only. This is used by tools like SUSEconnect, which ask for
               confirmation before the product gets registered. So there’s no need to confirm the product license
               again at install time.

           --replacefiles
               Install the packages even if they replace files from other, already installed, packages. Default is to
               treat file conflicts as an error. --download-as-needed disables the fileconflict check because access
               to all packages filelists is needed in advance in order to perform the check.

           -D, --dry-run
               Test the upgrade, do not actually install or update any package. If used together with --download-only
               a meaningful file conflict check can be performed (see section Package File Conflicts).

           -y, --no-confirm
               Don’t require user interaction. Alias for the --non-interactive global option.

           --details
               Show the detailed installation summary.

           Solver related options:

           --debug-solver
               Create solver test case for debugging. Use this option, if you think the dependencies were not solved
               all right and attach the resulting /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use
               this option, simply add it to the problematic install or remove command.

           --force-resolution
               Force the solver to find a solution by allowing to remove packages with unfulfilled requirements. This
               is the default when removing packages (zypper remove). This option overrides --no-force-resolution in
               case both are specified on the command line.

           -R, --no-force-resolution
               Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problems and prompt the user to
               resolve them manually. This is the default except when removing packages (zypper remove).

           --solver-focus MODE
               Set the solvers general attitude when resolving a job. Valid modes are Job, Installed or Update. See
               section Package Dependencies for details.

           --recommends
               Install also recommended packages in addition to the required ones. The default behavior is determined
               by [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           --no-recommends
               Do not install recommended packages, but only required ones. The default behavior is determined by
               [zypp.conf:solver.onlyRequires].

           Expert Options:
               Don’t use them unless you know you need them.

           --allow-downgrade, --no-allow-downgrade
               Whether to allow downgrading installed resolvables.

           --allow-name-change, --no-allow-name-change
               Whether to allow changing the names of installed resolvables. Setting this to no will not replace
               packages which have been renamed.

           --allow-arch-change, --no-allow-arch-change
               Whether to allow changing the architecture of installed resolvables.

           --allow-vendor-change, --no-allow-vendor-change
               Whether to allow changing the vendor of installed resolvables. Setting this to no might be useful if
               you do not want packages from foreign repos being changed to the distributions version (or vice
               versa).

           This command also accepts the Download-and-install mode options described in the install command
           description.

           Examples:

               $ zypper dup --from factory --from packman
                   Upgrade the system to the latest versions provided by the factory and packman repositories.

   Query Commands
       search (se) [options] [querystring|capability]...
           Search for packages matching any of the given search strings. * and ? wildcard characters can be used
           within search strings. If the search string is enclosed in /  (e.g. /^k.*e$/) it’s interpreted as a
           regular expression. See the install command for details about how to specify a capability. + Results of
           the search are printed in a table with columns S+tatus+, Name, Summary and Type of package. + In the
           detailed view (se -s) all available instances of matching packages are shown; each version in each
           repository on a separate line, with columns S+tatus+, Name, Type, Version, Arch+itecture+ and Repository.
           For installed packages Repository shows either a repository that provides exactly the installed version of
           the package, or, if the exact version is not provided by any known repo, (System Packages) (or @System).
           Those installed packages not provided by any repo are often denoted as being unwanted, orphaned or
           dropped. + The S+tatus+ column can contain the following values:

           i+
               installed by user request

           i
               installed automatically (by the resolver, see section Automatically installed packages)

           v
               a different version is installed

           empty
               neither of the above cases

           .l
               is shown in the 2nd column if the item is locked (see section Package Locks Management)

           The v status is only shown if the version or the repository matters (see --details or --repo), and the
           installed instance differs from the one listed in version or repository. + This command accepts the
           following options:

           --match-substrings
               Matches for search strings may be partial words (default).

           --match-words
               Matches for search strings may only be whole words.

           -x, --match-exact
               Searches for an exact name of the package.

           --provides
               Search for packages which provide the search strings.

           --requires
               Search for packages which require the search strings.

           --recommends
               Search for packages which recommend the search strings.

           --suggests
               Search for packages which suggest the search strings.

           --conflicts
               Search for packages conflicting with the search strings.

           --obsoletes
               Search for packages which obsolete the search strings.

           --supplements
               Search for packages which supplement the search strings.

           --provides-pkg
               Search for all packages that provide any of the provides of the package(s) matched by the input
               parameters.

           --requires-pkg
               Search for all packages that require any of the provides of the package(s) matched by the input
               parameters.

           --recommends-pkg
               Search for all packages that recommend any of the provides of the package(s) matched by the input
               parameters.

           --supplements-pkg
               Search for all packages that supplement any of the provides of the package(s) matched by the input
               parameters.

           --conflicts-pkg
               Search for all packages that conflict with any of the package(s) matched by the input parameters.

           --obsoletes-pkg
               Search for all packages that obsolete any of the package(s) matched by the input parameters.

           --suggests-pkg
               Search for all packages that suggest any of the provides of the package(s) matched by the input
               parameters.

           -n, --name
               Useful together with dependency options, otherwise searching in package name is default.

           -f, --file-list
               Search in the file list of packages. Note that the full file list is available for installed packages
               only. For remote packages only an abstract of their file list is available within the metadata (files
               containing /etc/, /bin/, or /sbin/).

           -d, --search-descriptions
               Search also in summaries and descriptions.

           -C, --case-sensitive
               Perform case-sensitive search.

           -i, --installed-only
               Show only installed packages.

           -u, --not-installed-only
               Show only packages which are not installed. + The old option name --uninstalled-only is still
               acceptable, but should be considered deprecated.

           -t, --type type
               Search only for packages of specified type. See section Package Types for a list of available package
               types. Multiple --type options are allowed. + See also the type-specific query commands like packages,
               patterns, etc.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used
               multiple times.

           --sort-by-name
               Sort packages by name (default).

           --sort-by-repo
               Sort packages by repository, not by name.

           -s, --details
               Show all available versions of matching packages, each version in each repository on a separate line.

           -v, --verbose
               Like --details with additional information where the search has matched (useful when searching for
               dependencies, e.g. --provides).

           Examples:

               $ zypper se 'yast*'
                   Search for YaST packages (quote the string to prevent the shell from expanding the wildcard).

               $ zypper se -s --match-exact kernel-default
                   Show all available versions of package kernel-default

               $ zypper se -dC --match-words RSI
                   Look for RSI acronym (case-sensitively), also in summaries and descriptions.

       packages (pa) [options] [repository]...
           List all available packages or all packages from specified repositories. Similar to zypper search -s -t
           package.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Just another means to specify repositories.

           -i, --installed-only
               Show only installed packages.

           -u, --not-installed-only
               Show only packages which are not installed. + The old option name --uninstalled-only is still
               acceptable, but should be considered deprecated.

           --orphaned
               Show packages which are orphaned (without repository).

           --suggested
               Show packages which are suggested.

           --recommended
               Show packages which are recommended.

           --unneeded
               Show packages which are unneeded.

       patches (pch) [options] [repository]...
           List all available patches from specified repositories, including those not needed. Short for zypper lp
           -a.

           -r, --repo alias|name'|#|URI
               Just another means to specify repositories.

       patterns (pt) [options] [repository]...
           List all available patterns or all patterns from specified repositories. Similar to zypper search -s -t
           pattern.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Just another means to specify repositories.

           -i, --installed-only
               Show only installed patterns.

           -u, --not-installed-only
               Show only patterns which are not installed. + The old option name --uninstalled-only is still
               acceptable, but should be considered deprecated.

       products (pd) [options] [repository]...
           List all available products or all products from specified repositories. Similar to zypper search -s -t
           product, but shows also the type of the product (base, add-on).

           -r, --repo 'alias|name|#|URI
               Just another means to specify repositories.

           -i, --installed-only
               Show only installed products.

           -u, --not-installed-only
               Show only products which are not installed. + The old option name --uninstalled-only is still
               acceptable, but should be considered deprecated.

           --xmlfwd tag
               XML output only: Literally forward the XML tag, if it is found in an installed products .prod-file (in
               /etc/products.d). + Using this option, for each installed product an <xmlfwd> node will be created
               inside the <product> output node of the product. + Tag defines the name (or /-separated path) of a
               xml-tag inside an installed products .prod-file. If the tag is present inside the products .prod-file,
               the tag and it’s content is literally forwarded into the products <xmlfwd> output node. + The option
               may be specified multiple times.

           Examples:

               $ zypper -x pd --xmlfwd name --xmlfwd register/target

       what-provides (wp) capability
           List all packages providing the specified capability. See also the install command for info about
           specifying capabilities.

           The command line is automatically transformed into the appropriate search command, e.g.:

               $ zypper what-provides 'zypper>1.6'

               $ zypper se --provides --match-exact 'zypper>1.6'

   Repository Management
       Zypper is able to work with YaST, RPM-MD (yum) software repositories, and plain directories containing .rpm
       files.

       Repositories are primarily identified using their URI or alias. Alias serves as a shorthand for the long URI
       or name of the repository. The name of the repository should briefly describe the repository and is shown to
       the user in tables and messages. The name is not required, and if not known, the alias is shown instead. The
       alias is required and uniquely identifies the repository on the system.

       The alias, name, URI, or the number from zypper repos list can be used to specify a repository as an argument
       of various zypper commands and options like refresh, --repo, or --from.

       Apart from the above, repositories have several other properties which can be set using the commands described
       in this section below, or by manually editing the repository definition files (.repo files, see section
       FILES).

   Variable substitution:
       You can use the following variables within a .repo or .service files name and URI values:

       $arch
           Use this variable to refer to the system’s CPU architecture.

       $basearch
           Use this variable to refer to the base architecture of the system. For example, iX86 machines have a base
           architecture of i386, while AMD64 and Intel64 have x86_64.

       $releasever, $releasever_major, $releasever_minor
           Use this variable to refer to the version of your openSUSE or SUSE Linux. The value is obtained from the
           /product/version XML-node in /etc/products.d/baseproduct. + This is useful for related repositories like
           packman (http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/packman/suse/$releasever), which shall always fit the installed
           distribution, even after a distribution upgrade. + To help performing a distribution upgrade, the value of
           $releasever can be persistently set to a user defined value by creating a custom variable with that name
           (see below). This way you can easily switch all repositories using $releasever to the new version
           (provided the server layouts did not change and new repos are already available). + For a single zypper
           command the value of $releasever can be temporarily overwritten by using the --releasever global option. +
           In addition $releasever_major will be set to the leading portion up to (but not including) the 1st dot;
           $releasever_minor to the trailing portion after the 1st dot. If there’s no dot in $releasever,
           $releasever_major is the same as $releasever and $releasever_minor is empty.

       Custom Variables
           A custom repository variable is defined by creating a file in /etc/zypp/vars.d. The variable name equals
           the file name. The files first line (up to but not including the newline character) defines the variables
           value. Valid variable(file) names consist of alphanumeric chars and underscore only.

       This is how you can set a custom variable, e.g. $releasever to a value of 99.0:
           echo "99.0" >/etc/zypp/vars.d/releasever

       To remove the custom variable, simply delete its file in /etc/zypp/vars.d:
           rm /etc/zypp/vars.d/releasever

       To check where you already use $releasever call:
           zypper --releasever @--HERE--@ lr -u

       Remember to protect the $ when using these variables on a shell command line:
           zypper ar -f http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/packman/suse/\$releasever packman

       If a variable is followed by an alphanumeric character or underscore it needs to be enclosed in {}:
           zypper ar -f http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/packman/suse/\${’releasever'}_packman

       Bash style definition of default ${’variable':-’word'} and alternate ${’variable':+’word'} values:
           SLE-${’releasever_major'}${’releasever_minor':+-SP-$releasever_minor}

       NOTE:
           Variable substitution within an URIs authority is limited to host and port. Bash style definition of
           default and alternate values is not supported. No variables can be used in an URIs scheme, user and
           password.

   Supported URI formats:
       scheme: @]host[:’port']] /’path' [?’query'] [#’fragment']
           Special characters occurring in URI components (like a @ in a password) must be %-encoded (%40).

       CD or DVD drive
           Optionally with devices list for probing.

           ;; *cd:///*
           ;; *dvd:/subdir*'?devices=/dev/sr0,/dev/sr1'

       FTP/HTTP/HTTPS directory tree
           The ftp URL scheme supports absolute and relative paths to the default ftp server directory (RFC1738,
           Section 3.2.2). To use an absolute path, you have to prepend the path with an additional slash, what
           results in a /%2f combination (second / encoded to %2f) at the begin of the URL path. This is important,
           especially in user authenticated ftp, where the users home is usually the default directory of the server
           (except when the server chroots into the users home directory). + Explicit proxy settings may be passed
           via optional parameters proxy, proxyport, proxyuser and proxypass. + HTTP authentication methods to use
           can be defined as comma separated list via optional parameter auth. Valid methods are e.g. basic, digest,
           ntlm, negotiate. Note, that this list depends on the list of methods supported by the curl library. + SSL
           verification behavior can be changed using the ssl_verify option (this should be used with care). Valid
           values are yes (the secure default), host, peer or no. Host just checks that the "Common Name" field or a
           "Subject Alternate Name" field in the servers certificate matches the host name in the URL. Peer just
           verifies whether the certificate provided by the server is authentic against the chain of digital
           signatures found in ssl_capath. No performs no checks at all. Yes is the secure default, performing host
           and peer check. + For SSL client certificate authentication use the options ssl_clientcert to define the
           path to the ssl client certificate and ssl_clientkey to define the path to the SSL client key. Use
           ssl_capath to change the directory holding the CA certificates (default is /etc/ssl/certs).

           ;; *ftp://user:pass@server/path/to/media/dir*
           ;; *ftp://user:pass@server/%2fhome/user/path/to/media/dir*
           ;; *http://user:pass@server/path*
           ;; *https://user:pass@server/path*'?proxy=foo&proxyuser=me&proxypass=pw'
           ;; *https://server/path*'?ssl_clientcert=/entitlement/1234.pem&ssl_clientkey=/entitlement/1234-key.pem'

       Disk volume (partition)
           Mandatory device parameter specifying the name of the block device to mount. The name of the optional
           filesystem defaults to "auto".

               ;; *hd:/subdir?device=/dev/sda1*'&filesystem=reiserfs'

       Local directory tree
           ;; dir:/directory/name

       Media in an ISO image (loopback mounted)
           + Mandatory iso parameter specifying the name of the iso file. Optional url parameter specifying the URL
           to the directory containing the iso file. Optional mnt parameter specifying the preferred attach point for
           the source media url. Optional filesystem name of the filesystem used in the iso file. Defaults to "auto".

           ;; *iso:/?iso=CD1.iso*'&url=nfs://server/path/to/media'
           ;; *iso:/?iso=CD1.iso*'&url=hd:/?device=/dev/hda'
           ;; *iso:/subdir?iso=DVD1.iso*'&url=nfs://nfs-server/directory&mnt=/nfs/attach/point&filesystem=udf'

       NFS exported directory tree
           To use NFSv4 either use schema tnfsv4:// or pass an optional parameter type=nfs4. Additional mountoptions
           can be passed as comma separated list. Defaults to "ro".

           ;; *nfs://nfs-server/exported/path*
           ;; *nfs://nfs-server/exported/path*'?mountoptions=ro&type=nfs4'
           ;; *nfs4://nfs-server/exported/path*'?mountoptions=ro'

       CIFS/SMB directory tree
           There is no difference between cifs and smb scheme (any more). In both cases the cifs filesystem is used.
           Additional mountoptions can be passed as comma separated list. Defaults to "ro,guest". Specify "noguest"
           to turn off "guest". This is necessary if Samba is configured to reject guest connections. + Optional
           workgroup or domain parameter set the name of the workgroup. As alternative to passing username:password
           in the URI authority the parameters user and pass can be used.

           ;; *smb://servername/share/path/on/the/share*
           ;; *cifs://usern:passw@servername/share/path/on/the/share*'?mountoptions=ro,noguest'
           ;; *cifs://usern:passw@servername/share/path/on/the/share*'?workgroup=mygroup'
           ;; *cifs://servername/share/path/on/the/share*'?user=usern&pass=passw'

       OpenSUSE Build Build Service (OBS) repositories
           Zypper also accepts special URIs identifying openSUSE Build Service (OBS) repositories in the addrepo
           command. These URIs have the form of obs://’project'/[platform], where project is the name of the OBS
           project and platform is the target platform (OS) for which the repository is intended. + If platform is
           omitted, openSUSE_$releasever is used unless a value for obs.platform is defined in zypper.conf. If you
           are following openSUSE_Factory or openSUSE_Tumbleweed you may need to set these as your default platform.
           But we can only guess, how the directory containing the repository that fits your distribution is named on
           the server. In case of doubt you need to look up the right URL in a browser.

           ;; *obs://zypp:Head/*
           ;; *obs://zypp:Head/openSUSE_Factory*
           ;; *obs://zypp:Head/openSUSE_Factory_Staging_Gcc49_standard*

       addrepo (ar) [options] URI alias

       addrepo (ar) [options] FILE.repo
           Add a new repository specified by URI and assign specified alias to it or specify URI to a .repo file. +
           Newly added repositories have auto-refresh disabled by default (except for repositories imported from a
           .repo, having the auto-refresh enabled). To enable auto-refresh use addrepo -f, or the --refresh option of
           the modifyrepo command. + Also, this command does not automatically refresh the newly added repositories.
           The repositories will get refreshed when used for the first time, or you can use the refresh command after
           finishing your modifications with *repo commands.

           -r, --repo file.repo
               Read URI and alias from specified .repo file

           -c, --check
               Probe given URI.

           -C, --no-check
               Don’t probe URI, probe later during refresh.

           -n, --name name
               Specify descriptive name for the repository.

           -e, --enable
               Enable the repository (the default).

           -d, --disable
               Add the repository as disabled. Repositories are added as enabled by default.

           -f, --refresh
               Enable autorefresh of the repository. The autorefresh is disabled by default when adding new
               repositories.

           -F, --no-refresh
               Disable auto-refresh for the repository.

           -p, --priority positive-integer
               Set the priority of the repository. Priority of 1 is the highest, the higher the number the lower the
               priority. -p 0 will set the priority back to the default (99). Packages from repositories with higher
               priority will be preferred even in case there is a higher installable version available in the
               repository with a lower priority.

           -k, --keep-packages
               Enable RPM files caching for the repository.

           -K, --no-keep-packages
               Disable RPM files caching.

           -g, --gpgcheck
               Enable GPG check for this repository. The behavior as described in section GPG checks.

           --gpgcheck-strict
               Enable strict GPG check for this repository. Even packages from signed repositories need a valid GPG
               signature and using unsigned packages must be confirmed.

           --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned
               Short hand for --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-repo --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-package

           --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-repo
               Enable GPG check but allow the repository metadata to be unsigned.

           --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-package
               Enable GPG check but allow installing unsigned packages from this repository.

           -G, --no-gpgcheck
               Disable GPG check for this repository. + Disabling GPG checks is not recommended. Signing data enables
               the recipient to verify that no modifications occurred after the data were signed. Accepting data with
               no, wrong or unknown signature can lead to a corrupted system and in extreme cases even to a system
               compromise.

           --default-gpgcheck
               Use the global GPG check settings defined in /etc/zypp/zypp.conf. This is the default. + Unless you
               have modified your zypp.conf settings, this is the same as --gpgcheck, the behavior as described in
               section GPG checks.

           Examples:

               $ zypper ar -c -n 'Packman 11.1 repo' http://packman.iu-bremen.de/suse/11.1 packman
                   Add a HTTP repository, probe it, name it Packman 11.1 repo, and use packman as alias.

               $ zypper ar https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/zypp:/svn/openSUSE_Factory/zypp:svn.repo

               $ zypper ar myreposbackup.repo
                   Add repositories from a .repo file.

       removerepo (rr) [options] alias|name|#|URI...
           Delete repositories specified by aliases, names, numbers, URIs or one of the aggregate options.

           --loose-auth
               Ignore user authentication data in the URI

           --loose-query
               Ignore query string in the URI

           -a, --all
               Apply changes to all repositories.

           -l, --local
               Apply changes to all local repositories.

           -t, --remote
               Apply changes to all remote repositories (http/https/ftp).

           -m, --medium-type type
               Apply changes to repositories of specified type. The type corresponds to the repository URI scheme
               identifier like http, dvd, etc. You can find complete list of valid types at
               http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Libzypp_URIs.

       repos (lr) [options] [repo]...
           List all defined repositories or show detailed information about those specified as arguments + The
           following data can be printed for each repository found on the system: # (repository number), Alias
           (unique identifier), Name, Enabled (whether the repository is enabled), GPG Check (whether GPG check for
           repository metadata (r) and/or downloaded rpm packages (p) is enabled), Refresh (whether auto-refresh is
           enabled for the repository), Priority, Type (repository meta-data type: rpm-md, yast2, plaindir). Which of
           the data is shown is determined by command line options listed below and the main.repoListColumns setting
           from zypper.conf. By default, #, Alias, Name, Enabled, GPG Check and Refresh is shown. + Repository number
           is a unique identifier of the repository in current set of repositories. If you add, remove or change a
           repository, the numbers may change. Keep that in mind when using the numbers with the repository handling
           commands. On the other hand, using the alias instead of the number is always safe. + To show detailed
           information about specific repositories, specify them as arguments, either by alias, name, number from
           simple zypper lr, or by URI; e.g. fB zypper lr factory, or zypper lr 2.

           -e, --export FILE.repo|-
               This option causes zypper to write repository definition of all defined repositories into a single
               file in repo file format. If - is specified instead of a file name, the repositories will be written
               to the standard output.

           -a, --alias
               Add alias column to the output.

           -n, --name
               Add name column to the output.

           -u, --uri
               Add base URI column to the output.

           -p, --priority
               Add repository priority column to the output.

           -r, --refresh
               Add the autorefresh column to the output.

           -d, --details
               Show more information like URI, priority, type, etc.

           -E, --show-enabled-only
               Show enabled repositories only.

           -U, --sort-by-uri
               Add base URI column and sort the list it.

           -P, --sort-by-priority
               Add repository priority column and sort the list by it.

           -A, --sort-by-alias
               Sort the list by alias.

           -N, --sort-by-name
               Sort the list by name.

           Examples:

               $ zypper repos -e myreposbackup.repo
                   Backup your repository setup:

               $ zypper lr -pu
                   List repositories with their URIs and priorities:

       renamerepo (nr) alias|name|#|URI new-alias
           Assign new alias to the repository specified by alias, name, number, or URI.

           Examples:

               $ zypper nr 8 myrepo
                   Rename repository number 8 to myrepo (useful if the repo has some dreadful alias which is not
                   usable on the command line).

       modifyrepo (mr) options alias|name|#|URI...

       modifyrepo (mr) options --all|--remote|--local|--medium-type
           Modify properties of repositories specified by alias, name, number, or URI or one of the aggregate
           options.

           -n, --name name
               Set a descriptive name for the repository.

           -e, --enable
               Enable the repository.

           -d, --disable
               Disable the repository.

           -f, --refresh (legacy: -r)
               Enable auto-refresh for the repository.

           -F, --no-refresh (legacy: -R)
               Disable auto-refresh for the repository.

           -p, --priority positive-integer
               Set the priority of the repository. Priority of 1 is the highest, the higher the number the lower the
               priority. -p 0 will set the priority back to the default (99). Packages from repositories with higher
               priority will be preferred even in case there is a higher installable version available in the
               repository with a lower priority.

           -k, --keep-packages
               Enable RPM files caching.

           -K, --no-keep-packages
               Disable RPM files caching.

           -g, --gpgcheck
               Enable GPG check for this repository. The behavior as described in section GPG checks.

           --gpgcheck-strict
               Enable strict GPG check for this repository. Even packages from signed repositories need a valid GPG
               signature and using unsigned packages must be confirmed.

           --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned
               Short hand for --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-repo --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-package

           --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-repo
               Enable GPG check but allow the repository metadata to be unsigned.

           --gpgcheck-allow-unsigned-package
               Enable GPG check but allow installing unsigned packages from this repository.

           -G, --no-gpgcheck
               Disable GPG check for this repository. + Disabling GPG checks is not recommended. Signing data enables
               the recipient to verify that no modifications occurred after the data were signed. Accepting data with
               no, wrong or unknown signature can lead to a corrupted system and in extreme cases even to a system
               compromise.

           --default-gpgcheck
               Use the global GPG check settings defined in /etc/zypp/zypp.conf. This is the default. + Unless you
               have modified your zypp.conf settings, this is the same as --gpgcheck, the behavior as described in
               section GPG checks.

           -a, --all
               Apply changes to all repositories.

           -l, --local
               Apply changes to all local repositories.

           -t, --remote
               Apply changes to all remote repositories (http/https/ftp).

           -m, --medium-type type
               Apply changes to repositories of specified type. The type corresponds to the repository URI scheme
               identifier like http, dvd, etc. You can find complete list of valid types at
               http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Libzypp_URIs.

           Examples:

               $ zypper mr -kt
                   Enable keeping of packages for all remote repositories.

               $ zypper mr -er updates
                   Enable repository updates and switch on autorefresh for the repo.

               $ zypper mr -da
                   Disable all repositories.

       refresh (ref) [alias|name|#|URI]...
           Refresh repositories specified by their alias, name, number, or URI. If no repositories are specified, all
           enabled repositories will be refreshed.

           -f, --force
               Force a complete refresh of specified repositories. This option will cause both the download of raw
               metadata and parsing of the metadata to be forced even if everything indicates a refresh is not
               needed.

           -b, --force-build
               Force only reparsing of cached metadata and rebuilding of the database. Raw metadata download will not
               be forced.

           -d, --force-download
               Force only download of current copy of repository metadata. Parsing and rebuild of the database will
               not be forced.

           -B, --build-only
               Only parse the metadata and build the database, don’t download raw metadata into the cache. This will
               enable you to repair damaged database from cached data without accessing network at all.

           -D, --download-only
               Only download the raw metadata, don’t parse it or build the database.

           -s, --services
               Refresh also services before refreshing repositories.

       clean (cc) [options] [alias|name|#|URI]...
           Clean the local caches for all known or specified repositories. By default, only caches of downloaded
           packages are cleaned.

           -m, --metadata
               Clean repository metadata cache instead of package cache.

           -M, --raw-metadata
               Clean repository raw metadata cache instead of package cache.

           -a, --all
               Clean both repository metadata and package caches.

   Service Management
       The services, addservice, removeservice, modifyservice, and refresh-services commands serve for manipulating
       services. A service is specified by its URI and needs to have a unique alias defined (among both services and
       repositories).

       Standalone repositories (not belonging to any service) are treated like services, too. The ls command will
       list them, ms command will modify them, etc. Repository specific options, like --keep-packages are not
       available here, though. You can use repository handling commands to manipulate them.

       addservice (as) [options] URI alias
           Adds a service specified by URI to the system. The alias must be unique and serves to identify the
           service. + Newly added services are not refreshed automatically. Use the refresh-services command to
           refresh them. Zypper does not access the service URI when adding the service, so the type of the services
           is unknown until it is refreshed. +

       -n, --name name
           Specify descriptive name for the service.

       -e, --enable
           Enable the service (this is the default).

       -d, --disable
           Add the service as disabled.

       -f, --refresh
           Enable auto-refresh of the service.

       -F, --no-refresh
           Disable auto-refresh of the service.

       removeservice (rs) [options] alias|name|#|URI...
           Remove specified service from the system. Removing a service will also remove of all of its repositories.

           --loose-auth
               Ignore user authentication data in the URI.

           --loose-query
               Ignore query string in the URI.

       modifyservice (ms) options alias|name|#|URI

       modifyservice (ms) options --all|--remote|--local|--medium-type
           Modify properties of specified services.

           Common Options
               These options are common to all types of services and repositories.

           -n, --name name
               Set a descriptive name for the service.

           -e, --enable
               Enable a disabled service.

           -d, --disable
               Disable the service (but don’t remove it).

           -f, --refresh  (legacy: -r)
               Enable auto-refresh of the service.

           -F, --no-refresh  (legacy: -R)
               Disable auto-refresh of the service.

           -a, --all
               Apply changes to all services.

           -l, --local
               Apply changes to all local services.

           -t, --remote
               Apply changes to all remote services.

           -m, --medium-type type
               Apply changes to services of specified type.

           RIS Service Specific Options
               These options are ignored by services other than Repository Index Services.

           -i, --ar-to-enable alias
               Schedule an RIS service repository to be enabled at next service refresh.

           -I, --ar-to-disable alias
               Schedule an RIS service repository to be disabled at next service refresh.

           -j, --rr-to-enable alias
               Remove a RIS service repository to enable.

           -J, --rr-to-disable "alias'
               Remove a RIS service repository to disable.

           -k, --cl-to-enable
               Clear the list of RIS repositories to enable.

           -K, --cl-to-disable
               Clear the list of RIS repositories to disable.

       services (ls) [options]
           List services defined on the system.

           -u, --uri
               Show also base URI of repositories.

           -p, --priority
               Show also repository priority.

           -d, --details
               Show more information like URI, priority, type.

           -r, --with-repos
               Show also repositories belonging to the services.

           -P, --sort-by-priority
               Sort the list by repository priority.

           -E, --show-enabled-only
               Show enabled services only. If used together with --with-repos a disabled services owning (manually)
               enabled repositories are shown as well.

           -U, --sort-by-uri
               Sort the list by URI.

           -N, --sort-by-name
               Sort the list by name.

       refresh-services (refs) [options] alias|name|#|URI...
           Refreshing a service means executing the service’s special task. + RIS services add, remove, or modify
           repositories on your system based on current content of the repository index. A differing enabled/disabled
           state caused by manually calling modify-repo on a service repository however will not be reverted unless
           the --restore-status option is used, or the repository index explicitly requests the change. + Services
           only manage defined repositories, they do not refresh them. To refresh also repositories, use --with-repos
           option or the refresh command.

           -f, --force
               Force a complete refresh of specified services. This option will cause both the download of raw
               metadata and parsing of the metadata to be forced even if everything indicates a refresh is not
               needed.

           -r, --with-repos
               Refresh also the service repositories.

           -R, --restore-status
               Also restore service repositories enabled/disabled state to the repository index default. Useful after
               you manually changed some service repositories enabled state.

   Package Locks Management
       Package locks serve the purpose of preventing changes to the set of installed packages on the system. The
       locks are stored in form of a query in /etc/zypp/locks file (see also locks(5)). Packages matching this query
       are then forbidden to change their installed status; an installed package can’t be removed or upgraded, not
       installed package can’t be installed. When requesting to install, upgrade or remove such locked package, you
       will get a dependency problem dialog.

       locks (ll)
           List currently active package locks.

           -m, --matches
               Show the number of resolvables matched by each lock. This option requires loading the repositories.

           -s, --solvables
               List the resolvables matched by each lock. This option requires loading the repositories.

       addlock (al) [options] package-name...
           Add a package lock. Specify packages to lock by exact name or by a glob pattern using * and ? wildcard
           characters.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Restrict the lock to the specified repository.

           -t, --type type
               Lock only packages of specified type (default: package). See section Package Types for list of
               available package types.

       removelock (rl) [options] lock-number|package-name...
           Remove specified package lock. Specify the lock to remove by its number obtained with zypper locks or by
           the package name.

           -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
               Restrict the lock to the specified repository.

           -t, --type type
               Restrict the lock to packages of specified type (default: package). See section Package Types for list
               of available package types.

       cleanlocks (cl)
           Remove unused locks. + This command looks for locks that do not currently (with regard to repositories
           used) lock any package and for each such lock it asks user whether to remove it.

       Locale Management ~~~~~~~ These commands give information about requested locales and the possibilty to manage
       those. A locale is defined by a language code. For many packages there are locale dependent packages available
       which provide translations or dictionaries. To get these installed, the locale for the desired language must
       be marked as requested by the package manager library.

       locales (lloc) [OPTIONS] [LOCALE] ...
           List requested locales. Called without argument, lists the locales which are already marked as requested.
           Specifying certain locale(s) prints information only for this(these).

           -a, --all
               List all available locales.

           -p, --packages
               Show corresponding packages.

       addlocale (aloc) [OPTIONS] <LOCALE> ...
           Add specified locale(s) to the list of requested locales..

           -n, --no-packages
               Do not install corresponding packages.

       removelocale (rloc) [OPTIONS] <LOCALE> ...
           Remove specified locale(s) from the list of requested locales..

           -n, --no-packages
               Do not remove corresponding packages.

       Examples:

           $ zypper locales
               List requested locales.

           $ zypper locales --packages de en
               Get the lists of packages which are available for de and en (exact match).

           $ zypper locales en_
               Get all locales with lang code en that have their own country code, excluding the fallback en.

           $ zypper locales en*
               Get all locales with lang code en with or without country code.

           $ zypper aloc --packages de_CH
               Request de_CH and install language dependent packages.

   Other Commands
       versioncmp (vcmp) version1 version2
           Compare the versions supplied as arguments and tell whether version1 is older or newer than version2 or
           the two version strings match. + The default output is in human-friendly form. If --terse global option is
           used, the result is an integer number, negative/positive if version1 is older/newer than version2, zero if
           they match.

           -m, --match
               Takes missing release number as any release.

               For example:

                   $ zypper vcmp -m 0.15.3 0.15.3-2
                       0.15.3 matches 0.15.3-2

                   $ zypper vcmp 0.15.3 0.15.3-2
                       0.15.3 is older than 0.15.3-2

       targetos (tos)
           Shows the ID string of the target operating system. The string has a form of distroname-architecture. The
           string is determined by libzypp, the distroname is read from (current-rootdir)/etc/products.d/baseproduct
           and the architecture is determined from uname and CPU flags.

       licenses
           Prints a report about licenses and 'EULA’s of installed packages to standard output. + First, a list of
           all packages and their licenses and/or EULAs is shown. This is followed by a summary, including the total
           number of installed packages, the number of installed packages with EULAs that required a confirmation
           from the user. Since the EULAs are not stored on the system and can only be read from repository metadata,
           the summary includes also the number of installed packages that have their counterpart in repositories.
           The report ends with a list of all licenses uses by the installed packages. + This command can be useful
           for companies redistributing a custom distribution (like appliances) to figure out what licenses they are
           bound by.

       download
           Download rpms specified on the commandline to a local directory. + Per default packages are downloaded to
           the libzypp package cache (/var/cache/zypp/packages; for non-root users $XDG_CACHE_HOME/zypp/packages),
           but this can be changed by using the global --pkg-cache-dir option. + Parsable XML-output produced by
           zypper --xmlout will include a <download-result> node for each package zypper tried to download. Upon
           success the location of the downloaded package is found in the path attribute of the <localfile> subnode
           (xpath: download-result/localpath@path): +

                   <download-result>
                     <solvable>
                       <kind>package</kind>
                       <name>zypper</name>
                       <edition epoch="0" version="1.9.17" release="26.1"/>
                       <arch>x86_64</arch>
                       <repository name="repo-oss-update (13.1)" alias="openSUSE:repo-oss-update"/>
                     </solvable>
                     <localfile path="/var/cache/zypp/pac.../zypper-1.9.17-26.1.x86_64.rpm"/>
                   </download-result>

       --all-matches
                Download all versions matching the commandline arguments. Otherwise only the best version of each
           matching package is downloaded.

       --dry-run
           Don’t download any package, just report what would be done.

       -r, --repo alias|name|#|URI
           Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number or URI. This option can be used
           multiple times.

       --from alias|name|#|URI
           Select packages from the specified repository only. This option can be used multiple times.

       source-download
           Download source rpms for all installed packages to a local directory.

           -d, --directory dir
               Download all source rpms to this directory. Default is /var/cache/zypper/source-download.

           --delete
               Delete extraneous source rpms in the local directory. This is the default.

           --no-delete
               Do not delete extraneous source rpms.

           --status
               Don’t download any source rpms, but show which source rpms are missing or extraneous.

       ps
           After each upgrade or removal of packages, there may be running processes on the system which continue to
           use meanwhile deleted files. zypper ps lists all processes using deleted files, together with the
           corresponding files, and a service name hint, in case it’s a known service. This gives a hint which
           services may need to be restarted after an update. Usually programs which continue to use deleted shared
           libraries. The list contains the following information:

           PID
               ID of the process

           PPID
               ID of the parent process

           UID
               ID of the user running the process

           Login
               Login name of the user running the process

           Command
               Command used to execute the process

           Service
               Service name, if command is associated with a system service

           Files
               The list of the deleted files

               -s, --short
                   Create a short table not showing the deleted files. Given twice, show only processes which are
                   associated with a system service. Given three times, list the associated system service names
                   only.

               --print format
                   For each associated system service print format on the standard output, followed by a newline. Any
                   %s directive in format is replaced by the system service name.

               -d, --debugFile filename
                   Output a file with all proc entries that make it into the final set of used open files. This can
                   be submitted as additional information in a bug report.

               Examples:

           $ zypper ps -ss
               Show only processes associated with a system service.

           $ zypper ps -sss
               Short for zypper ps --print "%s"; list services which might need a restart.

           $ zypper ps --print "systemctl status %s"
               Let zypper print the commands to retrieve status information for services which might need a restart.

       needs-rebooting
           Checks if the reboot-needed flag was set by a previous update or install of a core library or service. +
           The reboot-needed flag is set when a package from a predefined list (/etc/zypp/needreboot) is updated or
           installed. Exit code ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_REBOOT_NEEDED indicates that a reboot is needed, otherwise the exit
           code is set to ZYPPER_EXIT_OK.

   Subommands
       subcommand
           Lists available subcommands in /usr/lib/zypper/commands and from elsewhere on your $PATH. See section
           SUBCOMMANDS for details.

GLOBAL OPTIONS
       -h, --help
           Help. If a command is specified together with --help option, command specific help is displayed.

       -V, --version
           Print zypper version number and exit.

       -c, --config file
           Use the specified zypper config file instead of the default zypper.conf. Other command line options
           specified together with --config and having their counterpart in the zypper config file are still
           preferred. + The order of preference with --config is as follows:

            1. Command line options

            2. --config file

            3. [/etc/zypp/zypp.conf] (system-wide defaults for all libzypp based applications)

                NOTE: Use and location of the system-wide /etc/zypp/zypp.conf can not be changed this way. It’s
           mentioned here just because some zypper command line options allow to overwrite system-wide defaults
           defined in zypp.conf.

           + See also FILES section for more information.

       -v, --verbose
           Increase verbosity. For debugging output specify this option twice.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress normal output. Brief (esp. result notification) messages and error messages will still be
           printed, though. If used together with conflicting --verbose option, the --verbose option takes
           preference.

       --color, --no-color
           Whether to use colors in output if tty supports it. For details see the [color] section in zypper.conf.

       -A, --no-abbrev
           Do not abbreviate text in tables. By default zypper will try to abbreviate texts in some columns so that
           the table fits the width of the screen. If you need to see the whole text, use this option.

       -t, --terse
           Terse output for machine consumption. Implies --no-abbrev and --no-color.

       -s, --table-style integer
           Choose among different predefined line drawing character sets to use when drawing a table. The table style
           is identified by an integer number. Style 0 is the default, styles 1-9 use combinations of different box
           drawing characters whose shape may depend on the font the terminal is using. Style 10 separates columns by
           a colon and style 11 draws no lines at all.

       -n, --non-interactive
           Switches to non-interactive mode. In this mode zypper doesn’t ask user to type answers to various prompts,
           but uses default answers automatically. Those default answers also depend on other options like
           --no-gpg-checks or --ignore-unknown.

       --non-interactive-include-reboot-patches
           In non-interactive mode do not skip patches which have the rebootSuggested-flag set. Otherwise these
           patches are considered to be interactive, like patches including a licenses or some message to confirm.
           NOTE: This option does not turn on non-interactive mode.

       -x, --xmlout
           Switches to XML output. This option is useful for scripts or graphical frontends using zypper.

       -i, --ignore-unknown
           Ignore unknown packages. This option is useful for scripts, because when installing in --non-interactive
           mode zypper expects each command line argument to match at least one known package. Unknown names or
           globbing expressions with no match are treated as an error unless this option is used.

       -D, --reposd-dir dir
           Use the specified directory to look for the repository definition (.repo) files. The default value is
           /etc/zypp/repos.d.

       -C, --cache-dir dir
           Use an alternative root directory for all caches. The default value is /var/cache/zypp.

       --raw-cache-dir dir
           Use the specified directory for storing raw copies of repository metadata files. The default value is
           /var/cache/zypp/raw.

       --solv-cache-dir dir
           Use the specified directory to store the repository metadata cache database files (solv files). The
           default value is /var/cache/zypp/solv.

       --pkg-cache-dir dir
           Use the specified directory for storing downloaded rpm packages. (see addrepo --keep-packages) The default
           value is /var/cache/zypp/packages.

       --userdata string
           User data is expected to be a simple string without special chars or embedded newlines and may serve as
           transaction id. It will be written to all install history log entries created throughout this specific
           zypper call. It will also be passed on to zypp plugins executed during commit. This will enable e.g. a
           btrfs plugin to tag created snapshots with this string. For zypper itself this string has no special
           meaning.

       Repository Options:

       --no-gpg-checks
           Ignore GPG check failures and continue. If a GPG issue occurs when using this option zypper prints and
           logs a warning and automatically continues without interrupting the operation. Use this option with
           caution, as you can easily overlook security problems by using it. (see section GPG checks) +

       --gpg-auto-import-keys
           If new repository signing key is found, do not ask what to do; trust and import it automatically. This
           option causes that the new key is imported also in non-interactive mode, where it would otherwise got
           rejected.

       -p, --plus-repo URI
           Use an additional repository for this operation. The repository aliased tmp# and named by the specified
           URI will be added for this operation and removed at the end. You can specify this option multiple times.

       --plus-content tag
           Additionally use disabled repositories denoted by tag for this operation. If tag matches a repositories
           alias, name or URL, or is a keyword defined in the repositories metadata, the repository will be
           temporarily enabled for this operation. The repository will then be refreshed and used according to the
           commands rules. You can specify this option multiple times. + If a disabled repositories metadata are not
           available in the local cache, they will be downloaded to scan for matching keywords. Otherwise the keyword
           scan will use the metadata available in the local cache. Only if used together with the refresh command, a
           keyword scan will refresh all disabled repositories. +

           To refresh all disabled repositories metadata:
               zypper --plus-content '' ref

           To include a disabled repository repo-debug in a search:
               zypper --plus-content repo-debug search ...

           To search only in a disabled repository repo-debug:
               zypper --plus-content repo-debug search -r repo-debug ...

           To enable all repos providing the debug keyword:
               zypper in --plus-content debug  some -debuginfo or -debugsource package

       --disable-repositories
           Do not read metadata from repositories. This option will prevent loading of packages from repositories,
           thus making zypper work only with the installed packages (if --disable-system-resolvables was not
           specified).

       --no-refresh
           Do not auto-refresh repositories (ignore the auto-refresh setting). Useful to save time when doing
           operations like search, if there is not a need to have a completely up to date metadata.

       --no-cd
           Ignore CD/DVD repositories. When this option is specified, zypper acts as if the CD/DVD repositories were
           not defined at all.

       --no-remote
           Ignore remote repositories like http, ftp, smb and similar. This makes using zypper easier when being
           offline. When this option is specified, zypper acts as if the remote repositories were not defined at all.

       --releasever version
           For the current command set the value of the $releasever repository variable to version. This can be used
           to switch to new distribution repositories when performing a distribution upgrade. See the dist-upgrade
           (dup) command and section Repository Management for more details about using the $releasever repository
           variable. +

           To check where you already use $releasever call:
               zypper --releasever @--HERE--@ lr -u

       Target Options:

       -R, --root dir
           Operates on a different root directory. This option influences the location of the repos.d directory and
           the metadata cache directory and also causes rpm to be run with the --root option to do the actual
           installation or removal of packages. See also the FILES section.

       --installroot dir
           Behaves like --root but shares the repositories with the host system.

       --disable-system-resolvables
           This option serves mainly for testing purposes. It will cause zypper to act as if there were no packages
           installed in the system. Use with caution as you can damage your system using this option.

SUBCOMMANDS
       Zypper subcommands are inspired by git(1). Subcommands are standalone executables that live in the
       zypper_execdir (/usr/lib/zypper/commands). For subcommands zypper provides a wrapper that knows where the
       subcommands live, and runs them by passing command options and arguments to them. If a subcommand is not found
       in the zypper_execdir, the wrapper will look in the rest of your $PATH for it. Thus, it’s possible to write
       local zypper extensions that don’t live in system space.

       This is how to add your own subcommand zypper mytask:

       •   The executable must be named zypper-’mytask'.

       •   The executable must be located your $PATH.

       •   A manpage for zypper-’mytask' should be provided and explaining the commands options and return values. It
           will be shown when calling zypper help mytask.

       •   Zypper built-in commands take precedence over subcommands with the same name.

       •   It’s fine to call zypper or use libzypp from within your subcommand.

       You can use the built-in zypper subcommand command to get a list of all subcommands in zypper_execdir and from
       elsewhere on your $PATH.

       Using zypper global-options together with subcommands, as well as executing subcommands in zypper shell is
       currently not supported.

FILES
       /etc/zypp/zypper.conf, $HOME/.zypper.conf
           Global (system-wide) and user’s configuration file for zypper. These files are read when zypper starts up
           and --config option is not used. + User’s settings are preferred over global settings. Similarly, command
           line options override the settings in either of these files. To sum it up, the order of preference is as
           follows (from highest to lowest):

            1. Command line options

            2. $HOME/.zypper.conf

            3. /etc/zypp/zypper.conf

            4. [/etc/zypp/zypp.conf] (system-wide defaults for all libzypp based applications)

                See the comments in /etc/zypp/zypper.conf for a list and description of available options.

                NOTE: The system-wide /etc/zypp/zypp.conf is mentioned here just because some zypper command line
           options allow to overwrite system-wide defaults defined there. zypp.conf and zypper.conf have different
           content and serve different purpose.

       /etc/zypp/zypp.conf
           ZYpp configuration file affecting all libzypp based applications. See the comments in the file for
           description of configurable properties. Many locations of files and directories listed in this section are
           configurable via zypp.conf. The location for this file itself can be redefined only by setting $ZYPP_CONF
           in the environment.

       /etc/zypp/locks
           File with package lock definitions, see locks(5) manual page for details. The package lock commands
           (addlock, removelock, etc.) can be used to manipulate this file. + This file is used by all ZYpp-based
           applications.

       /etc/zypp/repos.d
           Directory containing repository definition (*.repo) files. You can use the Repository Management commands
           to manipulate these files, or you can edit them yourself. In either case, after doing the modifications,
           executing *zypper refresh* is strongly recommended. + You can use the --reposd-dir global option to use an
           alternative directory for this purpose or the --root option to make this directory relative to the
           specified root directory. + This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /etc/zypp/services.d
           Directory containing service definition (*.service) files. You can use the Service Management Commands to
           manipulate these files, or you can edit them yourself. Running *zypper refs* is recommended after
           modifications have been done. + This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /usr/lib/zypper/commands
           System directory containing zypper extensions (see section SUBCOMMANDS)

       /var/cache/zypp/raw
           Directory for storing raw metadata contained in repositories. Use the --raw-cache-dir global option to use
           an alternative directory for this purpose or the --root option to make this directory relative to the
           specified root directory. + This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /var/cache/zypp/solv
           Directory containing preparsed metadata in form of solv files. + This directory is used by all ZYpp-based
           applications.

       /var/cache/zypp/packages
           If keeppackages property is set for a repository (see the modifyrepo command), all the RPM file downloaded
           during installation will be kept here. See also the clean command for cleaning these cache directories. +
           This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /var/log/zypp/history
           Installation history log.

       ~/.zypper_history
           Command history for the zypper shell (see the shell command).

       /etc/zypp/needreboot
           File with a list of packages that will set the reboot-needed flag when installed or upgraded.

       /etc/zypp/needreboot.d
           Directory that can be used to define packages that trigger the reboot-needed flag by adding additional
           files containing the required package names.

EXIT CODES
       There are several exit codes defined for zypper built-in commands for use e.g. within scripts. These codes are
       defined in header file src/zypper-main.h found in zypper source package. Codes below 100 denote an error,
       codes above 100 provide a specific information, 0 represents a normal successful run. Following is a list of
       these codes with descriptions:

       0 - ZYPPER_EXIT_OK
           Successful run of zypper with no special info.

       1 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_BUG
           Unexpected situation occurred, probably caused by a bug.

       2 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_SYNTAX
           zypper was invoked with an invalid command or option, or a bad syntax.

       3 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_INVALID_ARGS
           Some of provided arguments were invalid. E.g. an invalid URI was provided to the addrepo command.

       4 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_ZYPP
           A problem is reported by ZYPP library.

       5 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_PRIVILEGES
           User invoking zypper has insufficient privileges for specified operation.

       6 - ZYPPER_EXIT_NO_REPOS
           No repositories are defined.

       7 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ZYPP_LOCKED
           The ZYPP library is locked, e.g. packagekit is running.

       8 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_COMMIT
           An error occurred during installation or removal of packages. You may run zypper verify to repair any
           dependency problems.

       100 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_UPDATE_NEEDED
           Returned by the patch-check command if there are patches available for installation.

       101 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_SEC_UPDATE_NEEDED
           Returned by the patch-check command if there are security patches available for installation.

       102 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_REBOOT_NEEDED
           Returned after a successful installation of a patch which requires reboot of computer.

       103 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_RESTART_NEEDED
           Returned after a successful installation of a patch which requires restart of the package manager itself.
           This means that one of patches to be installed affects the package manager itself and the command used
           (e.g. zypper update) needs to be executed once again to install any remaining patches.

       104 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_CAP_NOT_FOUND
           Returned by the install and the remove command in case any of the arguments does not match any of the
           available (or installed) package names or other capabilities.

       105 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ON_SIGNAL
           Returned upon exiting after receiving a SIGINT or SIGTERM.

       106 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_REPOS_SKIPPED
           Some repository had to be disabled temporarily because it failed to refresh. You should check your
           repository configuration (e.g. zypper ref -f).

       107 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_RPM_SCRIPT_FAILED
           Installation basically succeeded, but some of the packages %post install scripts returned an error. These
           packages were successfully unpacked to disk and are registered in the rpm database, but due to the failed
           install script they may not work as expected. The failed scripts output might reveal what actually went
           wrong. Any scripts output is also logged to /var/log/zypp/history.

       Zypper subcommands (see section SUBCOMMANDS) may return different codes which should be described in the
       commands man page. Call zypper help subcommand to see the subcommands man page if one is provided.

HOMEPAGE
       https://github.com/openSUSE/zypper

AUTHORS
       The zypper project was started by Martin Vidner, Jan Kupec, Michael Andres, Duncan Mac-Vicar Prett, Josef
       Reidinger and Stanislav Visnovsky. Many people have later contributed to it.

SEE ALSO
       locks(5), zypper-log(8), YaST2(8)

SUSE Linux                                            2019-11-28                                            ZYPPER(8)